Viruses, Vol. 9, Pages 63: Simultaneous Detection of Both RNA and DNA Viruses Infecting Dry Bean and Occurrence of Mixed Infections by BGYMV, BCMV and BCMNV in the Central-West Region of Mexico
A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to simultaneously detect bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), bean common mosaic necrotic virus (BCMNV), and bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) from common bean leaves dried with silica gel using a single total nucleic acid extraction cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method. A mixture of five specific primers was used to amplify three distinct fragments corresponding to 272 bp from the AC1 gene of BGYMV as well as 469 bp and 746 bp from the CP gene of BCMV and BCMNV, respectively. The three viruses were detected in a single plant or in a bulk of five plants. The multiplex RT-PCR was successfully applied to detect these three viruses from 187 field samples collected from 23 municipalities from the states of Guanajuato, Nayarit and Jalisco, Mexico. Rates of single infections were 14/187 (7.5%), 41/187 (21.9%), and 35/187 (18.7%), for BGYMV, BCMV, and BCMNV, respectively; 29/187 (15.5%) samples were co-infected with two of these viruses and 10/187 (5.3%) with the three viruses. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting these viruses in the common bean and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies.
Chiquito-Almanza, Elizabeth ; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.; García-Álvarez, Nadia C.; Garrido-Ramírez, Eduardo R.; Montero-Tavera, Victor ; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo ; Anaya-López, José L.
Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 1719: Building Retrofit with Photovoltaics: Construction and Performance of a BIPV Ventilated Façade
Energies doi: 10.3390/en11071719
Juan Carlos Gutiérrez
Building ... more
Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 1708: A Simplified Calculation Method for Building Envelope Cooling Loads in Central South China
Energies doi: 10.3390/en11071708
The cooling load calculation of building envelopes is important fo ... more
Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 1704: A Relational Analysis Model of the Causal Factors Influencing CO2 in Thailand’s Industrial Sector under a Sustainability Policy Adapting the VARIMAX-ECM Model
Energies doi: 10.3390/en11071704
S ... more