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The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity in Flowing Freshwater Systems

06.11.2017 | Jason H. Knouft; Darren L. Ficklin, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

Ongoing increases in air temperature and changing precipitation patterns are altering water temperatures and flow regimes in lotic freshwater systems, and these changes are expected to continue in the coming century. Freshwater taxa are responding to these changes at all levels of biological ...


The Ecology of Mating and Its Evolutionary Consequences in Seed Plants

06.11.2017 | Spencer C.H. Barrett; Lawrence D. Harder, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

Mating in seed plants arises from interactions between plant traits and the environmental and demographic context in which individuals reside. These interactions commonly cause nonrandom mating, including selfing and promiscuous outcrossing within local neighborhoods. Shared features of seed ...


Apparent Competition

06.11.2017 | Robert D. Holt; Michael B. Bonsall, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

Most species have one or more natural enemies, e.g., predators, parasites, pathogens, and herbivores, among others. These species in turn typically attack multiple victim species. This leads to the possibility of indirect interactions among those victims, both positive and negative. The term ...


Phylogenetics of Allopolyploids

06.11.2017 | Bengt Oxelman; Anne Krag Brysting; Graham R. Jones; Thomas Marcussen; Christoph Oberprieler; Bernard E. Pfeil, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

We give an overview of recently developed methods to reconstruct phylog-enies of taxa that include allopolyploids that have originated in relatively recent times—in other words, taxa for which at least some of the parental lineages of lower ploidy levels are not extinct and for which ploidy ...


Interactions Among Invasive Plants: Lessons from Hawai‘i

06.11.2017 | Carla M. D'Antonio; Rebecca Ostertag; Susan Cordell; Stephanie Yelenik, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

Most ecosystems have multiple-plant invaders rather than single-plant invaders, yet ecological studies and management actions focus largely on single invader species. There is a need for general principles regarding invader interactions across varying environmental conditions, so that secondary ...


Anthropogenic Extinction Dominates Holocene Declines of West Indian Mammals

06.11.2017 | Siobhán B. Cooke; Liliana M. Dávalos; Alexis M. Mychajliw; Samuel T. Turvey; Nathan S. Upham, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

The extensive postglacial mammal losses in the West Indies provide an opportunity to evaluate extinction dynamics, but limited data have hindered our ability to test hypotheses. Here, we analyze the tempo and dynamics of extinction using a novel data set of faunal last-appearance dates and human ...


The Ecology of Soil Carbon: Pools, Vulnerabilities, and Biotic and Abiotic Controls

06.11.2017 | Robert B. Jackson; Kate Lajtha; Susan E. Crow; Gustaf Hugelius; Marc G. Kramer; Gervasio Piñeiro, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

Soil organic matter (SOM) anchors global terrestrial productivity and food and fiber supply. SOM retains water and soil nutrients and stores more global carbon than do plants and the atmosphere combined. SOM is also decomposed by microbes, returning CO2, a greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. ...


Marine Infectious Disease Ecology

06.11.2017 | Kevin D. Lafferty, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

To put marine disease impacts in context requires a broad perspective on the roles infectious agents have in the ocean. Parasites infect most marine vertebrate and invertebrate species, and parasites and predators can have comparable biomass density, suggesting they play comparable parts as ...


Attached Algae: The Cryptic Base of Inverted Trophic Pyramids in Freshwaters

06.11.2017 | Yvonne Vadeboncoeur; Mary E. Power, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

It seems improbable that a thin veneer of attached algae coating submerged surfaces in lakes and rivers could be the foundation of many freshwater food webs, but increasing evidence from chemical tracers supports this view. Attached algae grow on any submerged surface that receives enough light ...


Temporal Variation in Trophic Cascades

06.11.2017 | Jonah Piovia-Scott; Louie H. Yang; Amber N. Wright, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2017

The trophic cascade has emerged as a key paradigm in ecology. Although ecologists have made progress in understanding spatial variation in the strength of trophic cascades, temporal variation remains relatively unexplored. Our review suggests that strong trophic cascades are often transient, ...


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