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Four scaffolds of varied benzylidene derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as Syk inhibitors for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Among these 31 compounds, 3‐benzylidene pyrrolidine‐2,5‐dione derivatives (including 12k) universally showed good Syk inhibitory activities in the low micromolar to submicromolar range. In the cellular profiling, compound 12k, the most efficient compound, showed excellent antiproliferative activity against fibroblast‐like synoviocytes (FLS)‐RA, and demonstrated potencies for suppression of IL‐6 and MMP‐3 secretion almost equal to R406 (positive control). The oral efficacy of 12k in the murine collagen‐induced arthritis model was significant, despite being weaker than R406. Taken together, all preliminary pharmacological results supported 12k as a potential small‐molecule inhibitor targeting Syk for the treatment of RA.
Four structural systems of benzylidene compounds were designed and synthesized. Analog 12k, the most efficient compound, showed excellent antiproliferative activity on fibroblast‐like synoviocytes. The oral efficacy in the murine collagen‐induced arthritis model supported 12k as a potential small‐molecule inhibitor for rheumatoid arthritis.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... mehr
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... mehr