siRNAs and piRNAs collaborate for transposon control in the two-spotted spider mite [REPORT]
RNAi has revolutionized genetic research, and is being commercialized as an insect pest control technology. Mechanisms exploited for this purpose are antiviral and therefore rapidly evolving. Ideally, RNAi will also be used for noninsect pests; however, differences in RNAi biology make this uncertain. Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite) is a destructive noninsect pest, which has a proclivity to develop pesticide resistance. Here we provide a comprehensive study of the endogenous RNAi pathways of spider mites to inform design of exogenous RNAi triggers. This effort revealed unexpected roles for small RNAs and novel genome surveillance pathways. Spider mites have an expanded RNAi machinery relative to insects, encoding RNA dependent RNA polymerase (Rdrp) and extra Piwi-class effectors. Through analyzing T. urticae transcriptome data we explored small RNA biogenesis, and discovered five siRNA loci that appear central to genome surveillance. These RNAs are expressed in the gonad, which we hypothesize to trigger production of piRNAs for control of transposable elements (TEs). This work highlights the need to investigate endogenous RNAi biology as lessons from model organisms may not hold in other species, impacting development of an RNAi strategy.
We tested the proposal that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures support not just memory but also high-level object perception. In one task, participants decided whether a line drawing could represent an object in three-dimensional space and, in another task, they saw the components of an ... mehr
Fear memory is a highly stable and durable form of memory, even over vast (remote) time frames. Nevertheless, some elements of fear memory can be forgotten, resulting in generalization. The purpose of this study is to determine how cued fear memory generalizes over time and measure underlyi ... mehr
A person sees an object once, and then seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks later, she sees it again. How is the person's visual memory for that object changed, improved, or degraded by the second encounter, compared to a situation in which she will have only seen the object once? The an ... mehr