Structure-function analysis of Sua5 protein reveals novel functional motifs required for the biosynthesis of the universal t6A tRNA modification [ARTICLE]
N6-threonyl-carbamoyl adenosine (t6A) is a universal tRNA modification found at position 37, next to the anticodon, in almost all tRNAs decoding ANN codons (where N = A, U, G, or C). t6A stabilizes the codon–anticodon interaction and hence promotes translation fidelity. The first step of the biosynthesis of t6A, the production of threonyl-carbamoyl adenylate (TC-AMP), is catalyzed by the Sua5/TsaC family of enzymes. While TsaC is a single domain protein, Sua5 enzymes are composed of the TsaC-like domain, a linker and an extra domain called SUA5 of unknown function. In the present study, we report structure–function analysis of Pyrococcus abyssi Sua5 (Pa-Sua5). Crystallographic data revealed binding sites for bicarbonate substrate and pyrophosphate product. The linker of Pa-Sua5 forms a loop structure that folds into the active site gorge and closes it. Using structure-guided mutational analysis, we established that the conserved sequence motifs in the linker and the domain–domain interface are essential for the function of Pa-Sua5. We propose that the linker participates actively in the biosynthesis of TC-AMP by binding to ATP/PPi and by stabilizing the N-carboxy-l-threonine intermediate. Hence, TsaC orthologs which lack such a linker and SUA5 domain use a different mechanism for TC-AMP synthesis.
Adeline Pichard-Kostuch; Wenhua Zhang; Dominique Liger; Marie-Claire Daugeron; Juliette Létoquart; Ines Li de la Sierra-Gallay; Patrick Forterre; Bruno Collinet; Herman van Tilbeurgh; Tamara Basta
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