Assembly of the small ribosomal subunit in yeast: mechanism and regulation [REVIEW]
The eukaryotic ribosome is made of four intricately folded ribosomal RNAs and 79 proteins. During rapid growth, yeast cells produce an incredible 2000 ribosomes every minute. Ribosome assembly involves more than 200 trans-acting factors, intervening from the transcription of the preribosomal RNA in the nucleolus to late maturation events in the cytoplasm. The biogenesis of the small ribosomal subunit, or 40S, is especially intricate, requiring more than four times the mass of the small subunit in assembly factors for its full maturation. Recent studies have provided new insights into the complex assembly of the 40S subunit. These data from cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and other biochemical and molecular biology methods, have elucidated the role of many factors required in small subunit maturation. Mechanisms of the regulation of ribosome assembly have also emerged from this body of work. This review aims to integrate these new results into an updated view of small subunit biogenesis and its regulation, in yeast, from transcription to the formation of the mature small subunit.
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