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Olive and linseed oils have high contents of oleic acid and n‐3 fatty acids (FA), respectively. Vitamin D3, an essential nutrient, is in low contents in meat. This study investigated the potential application of olive and linseed oils’ mixture as a backfat replacer, and vitamin D3 as a supplement, in order to develop a product enriched by polyunsaturated FAs and vitamin D3. Two treatments were manufactured: conventional (C: 0% emulsion, 0 μg vitamin D3/100 g product) and modified (M: 10.9% emulsion/, 8.3 μg vitamin D3/100 g product). The quality characteristics and cooking effects on the FA and vitamin D3 contents were assessed. The sensory properties of cooked patties were not affected by olive and linseed oils’ mixture (P > 0.05). The instrumental textural parameters were lower in cooked M patties (P < 0.01), except springiness (P = 0.766) that was not affected by formulation. The contents of α‐linoleic acid in M patty were 19‐fold higher than those from C patty. The contents of n‐3 and n‐6 were higher in M patty (P < 0.05) than in C patty. Although cooking decreased the content of vitamin D3 in M patty (6.7 compared with 5.2 μg/100 g product), considerable increments were achieved compared to C patty.Practical Application
There is an increasing demand of consumers for healthier meat products; therefore, the improvement of their nutritional profile without negatively affecting quality characteristics is key factor for meat sector. This study emphasizes the feasibility of using the combination of olive and linseed oils’ mixture and vitamin D3 to yield new meat products with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D3. The effectiveness of combination of oils mixture and vitamin D3 tested in this study is proven and the high contribution of vitamin D3 and some fatty acids of nutritional interest identified.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... mehr
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... mehr