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The antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory effects of selenium‐enriched yeast (SY) and Gum Arabic (GA) have been reported. This study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective effect of SY and GA combination on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‐induced chronic liver injury in rats and to explore their synergistic mechanisms of action. Forty adult male Wistar rats randomly allotted to 5 groups: (A) worked as control, (B) was administered CCl4, (C‐E) were fed daily by GA, SY, and GA+SY respectively after mixing with basal diet, following CCl4‐intoxication. GA and SY combination significantly ameliorated CCl4‐induced reduction in serum total protein with elevation in aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in addition to restoring the histopathological changes and hepatic content of hydroxyproline. GA and SY combination was also effective in reducing lipid peroxidation (MDA), consistent with an increase in total antioxidant capacity (T‐AOC), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, indicating the suppression of liver oxidative stress. Furthermore, liver inflammation was ameliorated by GA and SY combination through inhibition of nuclear factor‐kappa (NF‐κB), tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α), cyclooxygenase‐2(COX‐2), monocyte chemotactic protein‐1 (MCP‐1), and toll‐like receptor 4(TLR‐4) over expression in the liver. Moreover, the up‐regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression by GA and SY combination enhanced the regeneration of liver tissue after CCl4‐administration. The expression of Collagen1, alpha‐smooth muscle actin (α‐SMA), and transforming growth factor‐beta1 (TGFβ1), was obviously ameliorated by GA and SY combination, suggesting the amelioration of profibrotic response of the liver. Taken together, our current study suggests that GA and SY combination exhibit a significant hepatoprotective activity, which more efficient than GA or SY alone.Practical Application
Chronic liver diseases are the serious health problems, which increase the morbidity and mortality in the world today. Selenium‐enriched yeast (SY) and Gum Arabic (GA) combination might be potential dietary agents could obviously ameliorate chronic liver damage, higher than GA and SY alone. They act to suppress the inflammation and inhibit the profibrotic response as well as support the liver regeneration.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... mehr
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... mehr