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Cell‐free fetal DNA analysis for non‐invasive prenatal screening of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy has been widely adopted for clinical use. Fetal monogenic diseases have also been shown to be amenable to non‐invasive detection by maternal plasma DNA analysis. A number of recent technological developments in this area has increased the level of clinical interest, particularly as one approach does not require customized reagents per mutation. The mutational status of the fetus can be assessed by determining which parental haplotype that fetus has inherited based on the detection of haplotype‐associated SNP alleles in maternal plasma. Such relative haplotype dosage (RHDO) analysis requires the input of the parental haplotype information for interpretation of the fetal inheritance pattern from the maternal plasma DNA data. The parental haplotype information can be obtained by direct means, reducing the need to infer haplotypes using DNA from other family members. The technique also allows the assessment of complex mutations and has multiplexing capabilities where a number of genes and mutations can be assessed at the same time. These advantages allow non‐invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal monogenic diseases to be much more scalable. These applications may drive the next wave of clinical adoption of cell‐free fetal DNA testing.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... mehr
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... mehr