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1,689 Newest Publications about the topic biochemistry

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Thiolated pyrimidine nucleotides may interfere thiol groups concentrated at lipid rafts of HIV-1 infected cells

12-12-2014 | Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, 2014

Upon HIV infection, cells become activated and cell surface thiols are present in increased number. Earlier we demonstrated in vitro anti-HIV effect of thiolated pyrimidine nucleotide UD29, which interferes thiol function. To further analyse the redox processes required for HIV-1 entry and ...

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UbcH7 regulates 53BP1 stability and DSB repair [Biochemistry]

09-12-2014 | Xiangzi Han; Lei Zhang; Jinsil Chung; Franklin Mayca Pozo; Amanda Tran; Darcie D. Seachrist; James W. Jacobberger; R ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is not only key to genome stability but is also an important anticancer target. Through an shRNA library-based screening, we identified ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme H7 (UbcH7, also known as Ube2L3), a ubiquitin E2 enzyme, as a critical player in DSB repair. ...

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Structure of Crumbs tail in complex with the PALS1 PDZ-SH3-GK tandem reveals a highly specific assembly mechanism for the apical Crumbs complex [Biochemistry]

09-12-2014 | Youjun Li; Zhiyi Wei; Yan Yan; Qingwen Wan; Quansheng Du; Mingjie Zhang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb’s ...

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Innate sense of purpose for IKK{beta} [Biochemistry]

09-12-2014 | Matthew S. Hayden; Sankar Ghosh, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The innate immune response is initiated upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by germ-line encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs including transmembrane receptors, typified by the Toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytoplasmic receptors, including the ...

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MAGUKs end a tale of promiscuity [Biochemistry]

09-12-2014 | Carsten Reissner; Markus Missler, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) constitute a family of scaffold molecules involved in diverse cellular processes, such as cell–cell communication, cell polarity, and signal transduction (1). MAGUKs are multidomain proteins with a core structure consisting of PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ), ...

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Structural basis of collagen fiber degradation by cathepsin K [Biochemistry]

09-12-2014 | Adeleke H. Aguda; Preety Panwar; Xin Du; Nham T. Nguyen; Gary D. Brayer; Dieter Brömme, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cathepsin K is the major collagenolytic protease in bone that facilitates physiological as well as pathological bone degradation. Despite its key role in bone remodeling and for being a highly sought-after drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis, the mechanism of collagen fiber degradation ...

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Increased subtlety of transcription factor binding increases complexity of genome regulation [Biochemistry]

09-12-2014 | Peter H. von Hippel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In PNAS, Afek et al. (1) show that the specific (or “consensus”) base-pair sequences of a regulatory DNA target are not solely responsible for controlling the binding affinities of several eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) for their DNA target sites. Rather, so-called “nonconsensus” ...

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Catecholamine-induced lipolysis causes mTOR complex dissociation and inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes [Biochemistry]

09-12-2014 | Garrett R. Mullins; Lifu Wang; Vidisha Raje; Samantha G. Sherwood; Rebecca C. Grande; Salome Boroda; James M. Eaton; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Anabolic and catabolic signaling oppose one another in adipose tissue to maintain cellular and organismal homeostasis, but these pathways are often dysregulated in metabolic disorders. Although it has long been established that stimulation of the β-adrenergic receptor inhibits insulin-stimulated ...

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Mechanism of ganciclovir-induced chain termination revealed by resistant viral polymerase mutants with reduced exonuclease activity [Biochemistry]

09-12-2014 | Han Chen; G. Peter Beardsley; Donald M. Coen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Many antiviral and anticancer drugs are nucleoside analogs that target polymerases and cause DNA chain termination. Interestingly, ganciclovir (GCV), the first line of therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, induces chain termination despite containing the equivalent of a 3′-hydroxyl ...

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Protein Prenylation: Enzymes, Therapeutics, and Biotechnology Applications

08-12-2014 | Charuta C. Palsuledesai; Mark D. Distefano, ACS Chemical Biology, 2014

Protein prenylation is a ubiquitous covalent post-translational modification found in all eukaryotic cells, comprising attachment of either a farnesyl or a geranylgeranyl isoprenoid. It is essential for the proper cellular activity of numerous proteins, including Ras family GTPases and ...

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