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2,623 Newest Publications about the topic biochemistry

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In vitro reconstitution of sortase-catalyzed pilus polymerization reveals structural elements involved in pilin cross-linking [Biochemistry]

12-Jun-2018 | Chungyu Chang; Brendan R. Amer; Jerzy Osipiuk; Scott A. McConnell; I-Hsiu Huang; Van Hsieh; Janine Fu; Hong H. Nguye ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Gram-positive sortase enzymes represent two broad functional categories—those that cross-link proteins to the cell wall and those that can catalyze this reaction and polymerize proteins to build adhesive pilus fibers. Here we report an in vitro reproduction of a robust pilus polymerization ...

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Structural basis for MTR4-ZCCHC8 interactions that stimulate the MTR4 helicase in the nuclear exosome-targeting complex [Biochemistry]

12-Jun-2018 | M. Rhyan Puno; Christopher D. Lima, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Aberrant or unwanted transcripts can be degraded by the RNA exosome with the help of the nuclear exosome-targeting (NEXT) complex. NEXT, composed of RNA-binding protein RBM7, scaffold ZCCHC8, and helicase MTR4, is implicated in stress response, neurodegeneration, and viral ribogenesis. Here, we ...

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Protein kinase C{alpha} gain-of-function variant in Alzheimer’s disease displays enhanced catalysis by a mechanism that evades down-regulation [Biochemistry]

12-Jun-2018 | Julia A. Callender; Yimin Yang; Gema Lordén; Natalie L. Stephenson; Alexander C. Jones; John Brognard; Alexandra C. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

This work unveils how an Alzheimer’s disease-associated mutation (M489V) in protein kinase Cα (PKCα) enhances catalytic activity without sensitizing the protein to the cell’s homeostatic degradation of aberrantly active PKCα. The active conformation of wild-type PKC is sensitive to degradation, ...

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VirB8 homolog TraE from plasmid pKM101 forms a hexameric ring structure and interacts with the VirB6 homolog TraD [Biochemistry]

05-Jun-2018 | Bastien Casu; Charline Mary; Aleksandr Sverzhinsky; Aurélien Fouillen; Antonio Nanci; Christian Baron, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The overproduction and purification of membrane proteins are intrinsically difficult, making their analysis challenging. We purified the TraE membrane protein from a bacterial conjugation system that is involved in plasmid transfer. Our results suggest that this protein forms hexamers with a ...

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Coordination of the leucine-sensing Rag GTPase cycle by leucyl-tRNA synthetase in the mTORC1 signaling pathway [Biochemistry]

05-Jun-2018 | Minji Lee; Jong Hyun Kim; Ina Yoon; Chulho Lee; Mohammad Fallahi Sichani; Jong Soon Kang; Jeonghyun Kang; Min Guo; K ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

LRS, an enzyme involved in protein synthesis, and Sestrin2, a stress-induced metabolic protein, are suggested to function as leucine sensors for the mTORC1 pathway, a central regulator of cell metabolism, growth, proliferation, and survival. The Rag GTPase cycle regulates mTORC1; however, ...

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Oxygen radicals, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite: Redox pathways in molecular medicine [Biochemistry]

05-Jun-2018 | Rafael Radi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Aerobic life in humans imposes the hazard of excess oxidation in cell and tissue components that may compromise cell function and viability. The formation and accumulation of oxidized products in biomolecules such as proteins and lipids are observed in various pathologies and during the normal ...

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Helical rotation of the diaphanous-related formin mDia1 generates actin filaments resistant to cofilin [Biochemistry]

29-May-2018 | Hiroaki Mizuno; Kotaro Tanaka; Sawako Yamashiro; Akihiro Narita; Naoki Watanabe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

It remains obscure how actin polymerizing and depolymerizing activities cooperate to control diverse actin dynamics. Formins rotate along the long-pitch helix of F-actin during processive actin elongation (helical rotation), which may twist F-actin in the opposite direction of the cofilin-induced ...

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Elastic coupling power stroke mechanism of the F1-ATPase molecular motor [Biochemistry]

29-May-2018 | James L. Martin; Robert Ishmukhametov; David Spetzler; Tassilo Hornung; Wayne D. Frasch, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Molecular motor F1-ATPases use the free energy from ATP binding and hydrolysis to ADP and Pi to rotate subunit γ, and can synthesize ATP in the FOF1 ATP synthase. We determined the energetics during each 3° of the power stroke from temperature-dependent changes of angular velocity. Unexpectedly, ...

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The anorexigenic peptide neurotensin relates to insulin sensitivity in obese patients after BPD or RYGB metabolic surgery

24-May-2018 | Christian Loeffelholz; Lidia Castagneto Gissey; Tina Schumann; Christine Henke; Anica Kurzbach; Joachim Struck; Andr ..., International Journal of Obesity, 2018

Neurotensin is a peptide with effects on appetite and intestinal lipid absorption. Experimental data suggest a role in glucose homeostasis, while human data is missing. Here, 20 morbidly obese subjects either underwent biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD), or Roux-en-Y gastric ...

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Cisplatin-DNA adduct repair of transcribed genes is controlled by two circadian programs in mouse tissues [Biochemistry]

22-May-2018 | Yanyan Yang; Ogun Adebali; Gang Wu; Christopher P. Selby; Yi-Ying Chiou; Naim Rashid; Jinchuan Hu; John B. Hogenesch ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Cisplatin is a front-line drug in treatment of most solid tissue cancers. It kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA. Although it is quite effective it has two major drawbacks. First, it has serious side effects, including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Secondly, some cancers ...

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