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2,021 Newest Publications about the topic biochemistry


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Quantification of Low-Level Drug Effects Using Real-Time, in vitro Measurement of Oxygen Consumption Rate

01-Dec-2015 | Adam Neal; Austin M. Rountree; Craig W. Philips; Terrance J. Kavanagh; Dominic P. Williams; Peter Newham; Gamal Khal ..., Toxicological Sciences, 2015

There is a general need to detect toxic effects of drugs during preclinical screening. We propose that increased sensitivity of xenobiotics toxicity combined with improved invitro physiological recapitulation will more accurately assess potentially toxic perturbations of cellular biochemistry ...


Bacterial Ecology of Fermented Cucumber Rising pH Spoilage as Determined by Nonculture‐Based Methods

25-Nov-2015 | Eduardo Medina, Ilenys M. Pérez‐Díaz, Fred Breidt, Janet Hayes, Wendy Franco, Natasha Butz, María Andrea Azcarate‐Peril, Journal of Food Science, 2015

Abstract Fermented cucumber spoilage (FCS) characterized by rising pH and the appearance of manure‐ and cheese‐like aromas is a challenge of significant economical impact for the pickling industry. Previous culture‐based studies identified the yeasts Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia ...


Global shape mimicry of tRNA within a viral internal ribosome entry site mediates translational reading frame selection [Biochemistry]

24-Nov-2015 | Hilda H. Au; Gabriel Cornilescu; Kathryn D. Mouzakis; Qian Ren; Jordan E. Burke; Seonghoon Lee; Samuel E. Butcher; E ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The dicistrovirus intergenic region internal ribosome entry site (IRES) adopts a triple-pseudoknotted RNA structure and occupies the core ribosomal E, P, and A sites to directly recruit the ribosome and initiate translation at a non-AUG codon. A subset of dicistrovirus IRESs directs translation ...


Directed evolution of the tryptophan synthase {beta}-subunit for stand-alone function recapitulates allosteric activation [Biochemistry]

24-Nov-2015 | Andrew R. Buller; Sabine Brinkmann-Chen; David K. Romney; Michael Herger; Javier Murciano-Calles; Frances H. Arnold, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Enzymes in heteromeric, allosterically regulated complexes catalyze a rich array of chemical reactions. Separating the subunits of such complexes, however, often severely attenuates their catalytic activities, because they can no longer be activated by their protein partners. We used directed ...


Conserved interdomain linker promotes phase separation of the multivalent adaptor protein Nck [Biochemistry]

24-Nov-2015 | Sudeep Banjade; Qiong Wu; Anuradha Mittal; William B. Peeples; Rohit V. Pappu; Michael K. Rosen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The organization of membranes, the cytosol, and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells can be controlled through phase separation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Collective interactions of multivalent molecules mediated by modular binding domains can induce gelation and phase separation in ...


Electrochemical evidence that pyranopterin redox chemistry controls the catalysis of YedY, a mononuclear Mo enzyme [Biochemistry]

24-Nov-2015 | Hope Adamson; Alexandr N. Simonov; Michelina Kierzek; Richard A. Rothery; Joel H. Weiner; Alan M. Bond; Alison Parkin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

A long-standing contradiction in the field of mononuclear Mo enzyme research is that small-molecule chemistry on active-site mimic compounds predicts ligand participation in the electron transfer reactions, but biochemical measurements only suggest metal-centered catalytic electron transfer. With ...


Direct measurements of the coordination of lever arm swing and the catalytic cycle in myosin V [Biochemistry]

24-Nov-2015 | Darshan V. Trivedi; Joseph M. Muretta; Anja M. Swenson; Jonathon P. Davis; David D. Thomas; Christopher M. Yengo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Myosins use a conserved structural mechanism to convert the energy from ATP hydrolysis into a large swing of the force-generating lever arm. The precise timing of the lever arm movement with respect to the steps in the actomyosin ATPase cycle has not been determined. We have developed a FRET ...


Guanine-vacancy-bearing G-quadruplexes responsive to guanine derivatives [Biochemistry]

24-Nov-2015 | Xin-min Li; Ke-wei Zheng; Jia-yu Zhang; Hong-he Liu; Yi-de He; Bi-feng Yuan; Yu-hua Hao; Zheng Tan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

G-quadruplex structures formed by guanine-rich nucleic acids are implicated in essential physiological and pathological processes and nanodevices. G-quadruplexes are normally composed of four Gn (n ≥ 3) tracts assembled into a core of multiple stacked G-quartet layers. By dimethyl sulfate ...


Allosteric N-WASP activation by an inter-SH3 domain linker in Nck [Biochemistry]

24-Nov-2015 | Julia Okrut; Sumit Prakash; Qiong Wu; Mark J. S. Kelly; Jack Taunton, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Actin filament networks assemble on cellular membranes in response to signals that locally activate neural Wiskott–Aldrich-syndrome protein (N-WASP) and the Arp2/3 complex. An inactive conformation of N-WASP is stabilized by intramolecular contacts between the GTPase binding domain (GBD) and the ...


Biotechnological production of ethanol: Biochemistry, processes and technologies

23-Nov-2015 | Dimitris Sarris, Seraphim Papanikolaou, Engineering in Life Sciences, 2015

The majority of the environmental problems arise from the use of conventional energy sources. The liability of such problems along with the reduction of fossil energy resources has led to the global need for alternative renewable energy sources. Using renewable biofuels as energy sources is of ...


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