MBD1, a member of the methyl-CpG-binding domain family of proteins, has been reported to repress transcription of methylated and unmethylated promoters. As some MBD1 isoforms contain two DNA-binding domains—an MBD, which recognizes methylated DNA; and a CXXC3 zinc finger, which binds unmethylated CpG—it is unclear whether these two domains function independently of each other or if they cooperate in facilitating recruitment of MBD1 to particular genomic loci. In this report we investigate DNA-binding specificity of MBD and CXXC3 domains in vitro and in vivo. We find that the methyl-CpG-binding domain of MBD1 binds more efficiently to methylated DNA within a specific sequence context. We identify genes that are targeted by MBD1 in human cells and demonstrate that a functional MBD domain is necessary and sufficient for recruitment of MBD1 to specific sites at these loci, while DNA binding by the CXXC3 motif is largely dispensable. In summary, the binding preferences of MBD1, although dependent upon the presence of methylated DNA, are clearly distinct from those of other methyl-CpG-binding proteins, MBD2 and MeCP2.
Clouaire, Thomas; de las Heras, Jose Ignacio; Merusi, Cara; Stancheva, Irina
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... more
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... more
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... more