Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mucin 21 (MUC21), a human counterpart of mouse epiglycanin/Muc21, were prepared using human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with MUC21 as the immunogen. The specificity of these mAbs was examined by flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation and western blotting focusing on the differential glycosylation of MUC21 expressed in variant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (ldlD cells and Lec2 cells) and CHO-K1 cells. One of these mAbs, heM21D, bound to both the unmodified core polypeptide of MUC21 and MUC21 attached with N-acetylgalactosamine (Tn-MUC21). Six antibodies, including mAb heM21C, bound to MUC21 with Tn, T or sialyl-T epitopes but not the unmodified core polypeptide of MUC21. Esophageal squamous carcinomas and adjacent squamous epithelia were immunohistochemically examined for the binding of these mAbs. MUC21 was expressed in esophageal squamous epithelial cells, and its O-glycan extended forms were observed in the luminal portions of squamous epithelia. As revealed by the binding of mAb heM21D and the absence of reactivity with mAb heM21C, esophageal squamous carcinoma cells produce MUC21 without the attachment of O-glycans. This is the first report to show that there is a change in the glycoform of MUC21 that can be used to differentiate between squamous epithelia and squamous carcinoma of the esophagus. Thus, these antibodies represent a useful tool to characterize squamous epithelial differentiation and carcinogenesis.
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... more
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... more
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... more