The influenza C virus is spread worldwide and causes diseases of the upper and (less frequently) lower respiratory tract in human. The virus is not pandemic, but it circulates together with pandemic influenza A and B viruses during winter months and has quite similar clinical manifestations. The influenza C virus is also encountered in animals (pigs and dogs) and is known to override the interspecific barriers of transmssion. The immune system of mammals often fails to recognize new antigenic variants of influenza C virus, which invariably arise in nature, resulting in outbreaks of diseases, although the structure of antigens in influenza C virus in general is much more stable than those of influenza viruses A and B. Variability of genetic information in natural isolates of viruses is determined by mutations, reassortment, and recombination. However, recombination events very rarely occur in genomes of negative-strand RNA viruses, including those of influenza, and virtually have no effect on their evolution. Unambiguous explanations for this phenomenon have thus far not been proposed. There is no proof of recombination processes in the influenza C virus genome. On the contrary, reassortant viruses derived from different strains of influenza C virus frequently appear in vitro and are likely to be common in nature. The genome of influenza C virus comprises seven segments. Based on the comparison of sequences in one of its genes (HEF), six genetic or antigenic lineages of this virus can be distinguished (Yamagata/26/81, Aichi/1/81, Mississippi/80, Taylor/1233/47, Sao Paulo/378/82, and Kanagawa/1/76). However, the available genetic data show that all the seven segments of the influenza C virus genome evolve independently.
A. S. Speranskaya, N. V. Melnikova, M. S. Belenikin, A. A. Dmitriev, N. Yu. Oparina, A. V. Kudryavtseva
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism G298T in association with oxidative DNA damage in coronary atherosclerosis
Content Type Journal Article
Category Research Note
RAJESH G. KUMAR, Department of Genetics, Osmania Univers ... more
A micropropagation protocol was developed for multiplication of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) using nodal explants. The maximum shoot regeneration was observed on low level of BAP (0.1 mg l−1) or kinetin (0.5 mg l−1). BA was recorded to be better than kinetin in terms of ... more
The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity, kinetic behavior, and thermal inactivation kinetics of peroxidase (POD) in aqueous extracts from two kinds of milk ripe stage corn, sweet corn and waxy corn. Optimum activities using guaiacol as the hydrogen donor were obtained for s ... more