By virtue of their ability to induce apoptosis and regulate growth, differentiation, and cytokine responses, the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members have emerged as attractive targets for anticancer therapeutics. Agonistic antibodies to apoptosis-inducing TNFRs, such as death receptor 5 (DR5), although displaying impressive activities against a variety of tumors in preclinical models, appear to be less active in clinical trials. We report that the in vivo apoptotic and antitumor activities of these antibodies have an absolute requirement for the coengagement of an inhibitory Fcγ receptor, FcγRIIB. Anti-DR5 antibodies of the type currently in clinical trials have weak FcγRIIB binding and thus are compromised in their proapoptotic and antitumor activities in both colon and breast carcinoma models. Enhancing FcγRIIB engagement increases apoptotic and antitumor potency. Our results demonstrate that Fc domain interactions are critical to the therapeutic activity of anti-DR5 antibodies and, together with previous reports on agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies, establish a common requirement for FcγRIIB coengagement for optimal biological effects of agonistic anti-TNFR antibodies.
The time required to recover from cold-induced paralysis (chill-coma) is a common measure of insect cold tolerance used to test central questions in thermal biology and predict the effects of climate change on insect populations. The onset of chill-coma in the fall field cricket (Gryllus pe ... more
Influenza recurs seasonally in temperate regions of the world; however, our ability to predict the timing, duration, and magnitude of local seasonal outbreaks of influenza remains limited. Here we develop a framework for initializing real-time forecasts of seasonal influenza outbreaks, usin ... more
Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) are commonly present with latent EBV infection. However, events regulating EBV infection at early stages of the disease and the role of EBV in disease pathogenesis are largely undefined. Genetic alterations leading to activation of cyclin D1 ... more