Folate deprivation enhances invasiveness of human colon cancer cells mediated by activation of sonic hedgehog signaling through promoter hypomethylation and cross action with transcription nuclear factor-kappa B pathway
Low folate status is well recognized as one of the metabolic stressors for colorectal cancer carcinogenesis, but its role in colon cancer invasion remains unknown. Activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal in interaction with the transcription nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) pathway is crucial for cancer aggressiveness. The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how folate deprivation promotes invasion by colon cancer cells in relation to Shh signaling and NF-B pathway activation. Cultivation of epithelial colon carcinoma-derived cells (HCT116) in folate-deficient (FD) medium enhanced cellular migration and invasion, in correlation with epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with Snail expression and E-cadherin suppression, increased production of β1 integrin and increased proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinase 2. Blockade of Shh signaling by cyclopamine (CYC) or of NF-B activation by BAY abolished FD-enhanced EMT and invasion by HCT116 cells. FD cells had 50–80% less intracellular folate, associated with aberrant hypomethylation of the Shh promoter, than control cells, and increased binding of nuclear NF-B subunit p65 to the Shh promoter region, which coincided with increased Shh expression and protein production of Shh ligand; in addition, the FD-induced Shh signaling targeted Gli1 transcription activator as well as Ptch receptor. The FD-induced Shh induction and activated signaling were blocked by NF-B inhibitor BAY. Blockade of Shh signaling abrogated FD-promoted NF-B activation measured by IBα degradation and by target gene TNFα expression. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that folate deprivation enhanced invasiveness of colon cancer cells mediated by activation of Shh signaling through promoter hypomethylation and cross actions with the NF-B pathway.
Tz-Ping Wang; Shu-Han Hsu; Hsin-Chun Feng; Rwei-Fen S. Huang
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