Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a secretory protein that plays important roles in cancer growth and metastasis. Lymphoid-enhancing factor 1 (LEF1) is a transcription factor mediating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Using microarray analysis, we found HGF induced expression of LEF1 in liver and breast cancer cell lines. HGF induced expression of LEF1 through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) signaling. Multiple NF-B-binding sites were mapped within 3 kb upstream of LEF1 transcription initiation site. NF-B binding to a site 2 kb upstream of LEF1 transcription initiation site was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Knockdown of LEF1 inhibited the expression of Slug and Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) and markedly attenuated HGF-induced tumor migration and invasion. Using immunohistochemical staining, we found LEF1 was frequently expressed in multiple types of carcinoma but not in the non-tumorous epithelial cells. Our finding suggest that transcriptional activation of LEF1 is a mechanism of cross talk between HGF/c-Met and Wnt/β-catenin pathways and is essential for HGF-induced tumor invasion.
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... more
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... more
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... more