MicroRNAs (miRs) play an important role in the development of many complex human diseases and may have tumour suppressor or oncogenic (oncomir) properties. Prostate cancer is initially an androgen-driven disease, and androgen receptor (AR) remains a key driver of growth even in castration-resistant tumours. However, AR-mediated oncomiR pathways remain to be elucidated. We demonstrate that miR-27a is an androgen-regulated oncomir in prostate cancer, acting via targeting the tumour suppressor and AR corepressor, Prohibitin (PHB). Increasing miR-27a expression results in reduced PHB mRNA and protein levels, and increased expression of AR target genes and prostate cancer cell growth. This involves a novel mechanism for androgen-mediated miR regulation, whereby AR induces a transient increase in miR-23a27a24-2 transcription, but more significantly accelerates processing of the primiR-23a27a24-2 cluster. Androgens therefore regulate miR-27a expression both transcriptionally (via AR binding to the cluster promoter) and post-transcriptionally (accelerating primiR processing to the mature form). We further show that a miR-27a anti-sense oligonucleotide, by opposing the effects of mir-27a, has therapeutic potential in prostate cancer.
Claire E. Fletcher; D. Alwyn Dart; Ailsa Sita-Lumsden; Helen Cheng; Paul S. Rennie; Charlotte L. Bevan
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... more
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... more
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... more