Memory consolidation is the hypothetical process in which an item in memory is transformed into a long-term form. It is commonly addressed at two complementary levels of description and analysis: the cellular/synaptic level (synaptic consolidation) and the brain systems level (systems consolidation). This article focuses on selected recent advances in consolidation research, including the reconsolidation of long-term memory items, the brain mechanisms of transformation of the content and of cue-dependency of memory items over time, as well as the role of rest and sleep in consolidating and shaping memories. Taken together, the picture that emerges is of dynamic engrams that are formed, modified, and remodified over time at the systems level by using synaptic consolidation mechanisms as subroutines. This implies that, contrary to interpretations that have dominated neuroscience for a while, but similar to long-standing cognitive concepts, consolidation of at least some items in long-term memory may never r...
Avian faunas vary greatly among montane areas; those at high latitudes are biologically impoverished, whereas those of some low-latitude mountains are biologically very complex. Their high level of species richness is caused by the aggregation of many small-ranged species, which has been di ... more
Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon that operates during severe perturbations of homeostasis, such as infection, injury, and exposure to contaminants, and is triggered by innate immune receptors that recognize pathogens and damaged cells. Among vertebrates, the inflammatory cascade is a ... more
The human body is inhabited by billions of microbial cells and these microbial symbionts play critical roles in human health. Human-associated microbial communities are diverse, and the structure of these communities is variable across body habitats, through time, and between individuals. W ... more