Changes in synaptic efficacy underlying learning and memory processes are assumed to be associated with alterations of the protein composition of synapses. Here, we performed a quantitative proteomic screen to monitor changes in the synaptic proteome of four brain areas (auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum) during auditory learning. Mice were trained in a shuttle box GO/NO‐GO paradigm to discriminate between rising and falling frequency‐modulated tones to avoid mild electric foot‐shock. Control‐treated mice received corresponding numbers of either the tones or the foot‐shocks. Six hours and 24 h later, the composition of a fraction enriched in synaptic cytomatrix‐associated proteins was compared to that obtained from naïve mice by quantitative mass spectrometry. In the synaptic protein fraction obtained from trained mice, the average percentage (±SEM) of down‐regulated proteins (59.9±0.5%) exceeded that of up‐regulated proteins (23.5±0.8%) in the brain regions studied. This effect was significantly smaller in foot‐shock (42.7±0.6% down, 40.7±1.0% up) and tone controls (43.9±1.0% down, 39.7±0.9% up). These data suggest that learning processes initially induce removal and/or degradation of proteins from presynaptic and postsynaptic cytoskeletal matrices before these structures can acquire a new, post‐learning organization. In silico analysis points to a general role of insulin‐like signalling in this process.
Thilo Kähne, Angela Kolodziej, Karl‐Heinz Smalla, Elke Eisenschmidt, Utz‐Uwe Haus, Robert Weismantel, Siegfried Kropf, Wolfram Wetzel, Frank W. Ohl, Wolfgang Tischmeyer, Michael Naumann, Eckart D. Gundelfinger
We studied 17,576 members of 166 MLH1 and 224 MSH2 mutation‐carrying families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Average cumulative risks of colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial cancer (EC) and other cancers for carriers were estimated using modified segregation analysis co ... more
Flavonoids have well‐known antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and anti‐cancer activities. Isoflavone genistein is considered a potent antioxidant agent against oxidative stress. Although several mechanisms have been proposed, a clear antioxidant mechanism of genistein is still remain ... more
People can get oral cancers from UV (290‐400 nm) exposures. Besides high outdoor UV exposures, high indoor UV exposures to oral tissues can occur when consumers use UV‐emitting tanning devices to either tan or whiten their teeth. We compared the carcinogenic risks of skin to or ... more
A new study from the University of Southern California (USC) has found a link between recreational marijuana use and an increased risk of developing subtypes of testicular cancer that tend to carry a somewhat worse prognosis. Published in CANCER the findings suggest that the potential cance ... more
Researchers in the United States have developed a medical model for regenerating bladders using stem cells harvested from a patient’s own bone marrow. The research, published in STEM CELLS, is especially relevant for paediatric patients suffering from abnormally developed bladders, but also ... more
The journal Stem Cells has announced Dr. Cinzia Rota as the winner of the annual Stem Cells Young Investigator Award. Co-sponsored by the International Stem Cell Symposium, the $10,000 prize is annually given to a young scientist who is the principal author of a research paper published in ... more