The first step in the process of infections by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is attachment to the host cell, which is assumed to be mediated by interaction of the envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 with cell surface glycosaminoglycans. In this study, a variety of glycosaminoglycans, heparan sulfate (HS) from various bovine tissues as well as chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate from bovine liver, were used to examine the direct interaction with recombinant E1 and E2 proteins. Intriguingly, among HS preparations from various bovine tissues, only liver HS strongly bound to both E1 and E2. Since HS from liver, which is the target tissue of HCV, contains highly sulfated structures compared to HS from other tissues, the present results suggest that HS-proteoglycan on the liver cell surface appears to be one of the molecules that define the liver-specific tissue tropism of HCV infection. The interaction assay with chemically modified heparin derivatives provided evidence that the binding of the viral proteins to heparin/HS is not only mediated by simple ionic interactions, but that the 6-O-sulfation and N-sulfation are important. Heparin oligosaccharides equal to or larger than 10-mer were required to inhibit the binding. Notably, a highly sulfated CS-E preparation from squid cartilage also strongly interacted with both viral proteins and inhibited the entry of pseudotype HCV into the target cells, suggesting that the highly sulfated CS-E might be useful as an anti-HCV drug.
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism G298T in association with oxidative DNA damage in coronary atherosclerosis
Content Type Journal Article
Category Research Note
RAJESH G. KUMAR, Department of Genetics, Osmania Univers ... more
A micropropagation protocol was developed for multiplication of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) using nodal explants. The maximum shoot regeneration was observed on low level of BAP (0.1 mg l−1) or kinetin (0.5 mg l−1). BA was recorded to be better than kinetin in terms of ... more
The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity, kinetic behavior, and thermal inactivation kinetics of peroxidase (POD) in aqueous extracts from two kinds of milk ripe stage corn, sweet corn and waxy corn. Optimum activities using guaiacol as the hydrogen donor were obtained for s ... more