Tumor microenvironment (TME) is important in tumor development and may be a target for anti-cancer therapy. The genesis of TME is a dynamic process that is regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors and coordinated by multiple genes, cells, and signal pathways. Cancer anaerobic metabolism and various oncogenes may stimulate the genesis of TME. Tumor cells and cancer stem cells actively participate in the genesis of the cancer stem cell niche and tumor neovascularization, important in the initiation of the TME. Various cancer-associated stromal cells, derived niche factors, and tumor-associated macrophages may function as promoters in the genesis of the TME. Dicer1 gene-deleted stromal cells can induce generation of cancer stem cells and initiate tumorigenesis, suggesting that stromal cells also may promote the genesis of the TME. Therefore, the key features of TME include niche-driving oncogenes, cancer anaerobic metabolism, niche-driving cancer stem cells, neovascularization, tumor-associated inflammatory cells, and cancer-associated stromal cells. These features are potential targets for normalization of the malignant TME and effective anti-cancer therapy.
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism G298T in association with oxidative DNA damage in coronary atherosclerosis
Content Type Journal Article
Category Research Note
RAJESH G. KUMAR, Department of Genetics, Osmania Univers ... more
A micropropagation protocol was developed for multiplication of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) using nodal explants. The maximum shoot regeneration was observed on low level of BAP (0.1 mg l−1) or kinetin (0.5 mg l−1). BA was recorded to be better than kinetin in terms of ... more
The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity, kinetic behavior, and thermal inactivation kinetics of peroxidase (POD) in aqueous extracts from two kinds of milk ripe stage corn, sweet corn and waxy corn. Optimum activities using guaiacol as the hydrogen donor were obtained for s ... more