Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are information-bearing biomolecules that play critical roles in embryonic development, signal transduction and carcinogenesis. Previous studies indicate that certain GSLs are associated with differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. In this study, we collected bone marrow samples from healthy donors and AML patients and analyzed the GSL expression profiles comprehensively using electrospray ionization linear ion-trap mass spectrometry. The results showed that AML patients had higher expression of the GSL lactotriaosylceramide (Lc3), GM3 and neolactotetraosylceramide (nLc4) in their bone marrow than did the healthy donors (P < 0.05), especially the M1 subtype of AML. To further explore the molecular mechanisms of Lc3, we examined the expression of the Lc3 synthase β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase5 (β3Gn-T5) and found that the bone marrow samples of AML patients had 16-fold higher expression of β3Gn-T5 than those of healthy donors (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that AML-associated GSLs Lc3, GM3 and nLc4 are possibly involved in initiation and differentiation of AML.
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... more
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... more
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... more