Of great interest to the academic and pharmaceutical research communities, helical transmembrane proteins are characterized by their ability to dissolve and fold in lipid bilayers—properties conferred by polypeptide spans termed transmembrane domains (TMDs). The apolar nature of TMDs necessitates the use of membrane-mimetic solvents for many structure and folding studies. This review examines the relationship between TMD structure and solvent environment, focusing on principles elucidated largely in membrane-mimetic environments with single-TMD protein and peptide models. Following a brief description of TMD sequence and conformational characteristics gleaned from the structural database, we present an overview of the conceptual models used to study folding in vitro. The impact of sequence and solvent context on the incorporation of TMDs into membranes, and its role in measurements of TMD self-assembly strengths, is then described. We conclude with a discussion of the nonspecific effects of membrane compo...
Avian faunas vary greatly among montane areas; those at high latitudes are biologically impoverished, whereas those of some low-latitude mountains are biologically very complex. Their high level of species richness is caused by the aggregation of many small-ranged species, which has been di ... more
Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon that operates during severe perturbations of homeostasis, such as infection, injury, and exposure to contaminants, and is triggered by innate immune receptors that recognize pathogens and damaged cells. Among vertebrates, the inflammatory cascade is a ... more
The human body is inhabited by billions of microbial cells and these microbial symbionts play critical roles in human health. Human-associated microbial communities are diverse, and the structure of these communities is variable across body habitats, through time, and between individuals. W ... more