E2F transcription factors are known to be important for timely activation of G1/S and G2/M genes required for cell cycle progression, but transcriptional mechanisms for deactivation of cell cycle-regulated genes are unknown. Here, we show that E2F7 is highly expressed during mid to late S-phase, occupies promoters of G1/S-regulated genes and represses their transcription. ChIP-seq analysis revealed that E2F7 binds preferentially to genomic sites containing the TTCCCGCC motif, which closely resembles the E2F consensus site. We identified 89 target genes that carry E2F7 binding sites close to the transcriptional start site and that are directly repressed by short-term induction of E2F7. Most of these target genes are known to be activated by E2Fs and are involved in DNA replication, metabolism and DNA repair. Importantly, induction of E2F7 during G0-G1/S resulted in S-phase arrest and DNA damage, whereas expression of E2F7 during G2/M failed to disturb cell cycle progression. These findings provide strong evidence that E2F7 directly controls the downswing of oscillating G1/S genes during S-phase progression.
Westendorp, Bart; Mokry, Michal; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J.A.; Holstege, Frank C.P.; Cuppen, Edwin; de Bruin, Alain
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... more
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... more
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... more