Starch consists of the two glucose polymers, amylose and amylopectin, and is deposited as semicrystalline granules inside plastids. The starch granule proteome is particularly challenging to study due to the amount of interfering compounds (sugars, storage proteins), the very low starch granule-associated protein content and also the dynamic range of abundant proteins. Here we present the protocol for extraction and 2-DE of wheat starch granule-associated proteins whose most important steps are: (i) washing and sonication to remove interfering compounds (storage proteins) from the surface of the granules, (ii) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations to monitor purification and granules swelling, (iii) appropriate protein extraction and solubilization to obtain enough proteins for Coomassie blue staining and proteomic analysis. Our objective was to minimize the amount of contamination by storage proteins and to preserve the structure of the starch and of starch-associated proteins and to maximize t...
The successful applicability of gene therapy approaches will heavily rely on the development of efficient and safe nonviral gene delivery vectors, for example, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). CPPs can condense oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA (pDNA) into nanoparticles, thus allowing the t ... more
Dendrimers feature a defined number of terminal groups that may bind RNA or be functionalized with bioactive molecules. These competing uses of terminal groups may create an impasse if the requisite density of ligands depletes the number of terminal groups for binding sufficient RNA, or vic ... more
The development of clay bionanocomposites requires processing routes with nanostructural control. Moreover, moisture durability is a concern with water-soluble biopolymers. Here, oriented bionanocomposite coatings with strong in-plane orientation of clay platelets are for the first time pre ... more
Scientists are reporting discovery of a potential biochemical basis for the apparent cancer-fighting ability of broccoli and its veggie cousins. They found for the first time that certain substances in the vegetables appear to target and block a defective gene associated with cancer. Their ... more
Scientists in Japan are reporting development of a faster, less expensive version of the fabled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a DNA test widely used in criminal investigations, disease diagnosis, biological research and other applications. The new method could lead to expanded use of PCR ... more
Researchers at Rice University in Texas have developed a new approach to fighting cancer, based on nanoscale particles that can both detect and destroy cancerous cells. The report appears in the American Chemical Society's journal Nano Letters. Current molecular imaging approaches only dete ... more