Expansion of human articular chondrocytes (HACs) in serum-free medium (SFM) has been shown to be enhanced by the control of medium osmolality. HACs attained better growth when cultured at osmolalities lower than the average osmolality found in articular cartilage in vivo, although the specific causes for this improved expansion were not speculated. The aim of this study was to perform monolayer cultures of HACs in SFM at two different medium osmolalities, 320 and 400 mOsm/kg, and observe changes in protein content. A proteomics approach using differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) revealed differences in 20 spots. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identified 18 of the 20 spots. Proteins affected by higher osmolality in SFM were identified and found to function, traditionally, in the cytoskeleton, protection against reactive oxygen species, mRNA biogenesis, and the heat shock response. All of these proteins were correlated with the cell cycle and proliferation, emphasizing the importance of medium osmola...
Jane Koo; Kang-Il Kim; Byoung-Hyun Min; Gyun Min Lee
The successful applicability of gene therapy approaches will heavily rely on the development of efficient and safe nonviral gene delivery vectors, for example, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). CPPs can condense oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA (pDNA) into nanoparticles, thus allowing the t ... more
Dendrimers feature a defined number of terminal groups that may bind RNA or be functionalized with bioactive molecules. These competing uses of terminal groups may create an impasse if the requisite density of ligands depletes the number of terminal groups for binding sufficient RNA, or vic ... more
The development of clay bionanocomposites requires processing routes with nanostructural control. Moreover, moisture durability is a concern with water-soluble biopolymers. Here, oriented bionanocomposite coatings with strong in-plane orientation of clay platelets are for the first time pre ... more
Scientists are reporting discovery of a potential biochemical basis for the apparent cancer-fighting ability of broccoli and its veggie cousins. They found for the first time that certain substances in the vegetables appear to target and block a defective gene associated with cancer. Their ... more
Scientists in Japan are reporting development of a faster, less expensive version of the fabled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a DNA test widely used in criminal investigations, disease diagnosis, biological research and other applications. The new method could lead to expanded use of PCR ... more
Researchers at Rice University in Texas have developed a new approach to fighting cancer, based on nanoscale particles that can both detect and destroy cancerous cells. The report appears in the American Chemical Society's journal Nano Letters. Current molecular imaging approaches only dete ... more