The difference in the position of the anteroposterior axis in larval and adult echinoderms is related to the displacement of the mouth from the anterior end of the body to the posterior end in the phylogeny of echinoderms, which occurred in the course of the reorganization of their body plan from bilateral asymmetrical to radiosymmetrical. Traces of this phylogenetic process have been especially fully preserved in the ontogeny of crinoids. Other recent echinoderms have largely lost such traces. Dislocation of Hox-genes in sea urchins, resulting from the translocation of these genes to the 5′ end of the chromosome and inversion of the anterior Hox-genes, is explained by the necessity to preserve the spatial and temporal colinearity in the course of the convergence of the starting and final stages of the mouth displacement process, similar to the elevation process in crinoids, and inclusion in the basic body plan of the structure of a rudiment now regulated directly by the anterior Hox-genes.
The aim of this study was to verify the contribution of haptic and auditory cues in the quick discrimination of an object mass. Ten subjects had to brake with the right hand the movement of a cup due to the falling impact of an object that could be of two different masses. They were asked t ... more
Autonomic functions of the body and gas exchange have been studied in one athlete (master of sports in skiing, aged 27 years, with a maximal oxygen consumption of 67 mL/(min kg)); during a 6-h indoor ultra-marathon race; at an average speed of 2.7 m/s. Continuous monitoring of the heart rat ... more
Integral parameters of bacterial lipopolysaccharide concentration and antiendotoxin immunity activity were determined in the blood serum of subjects with two extreme variants of eating disorders: obesity and anorexia nervosa (in its clinical model, long-term starvation). The results of the ... more