A key step in network analysis is to partition a complex network into dense modules. Currently, modularity is one of the most popular benefit functions used to partition network modules. However, recent studies suggested that it has an inherent limitation in detecting dense network modules. In this study, we observed that despite the limitation, modularity has the advantage of preserving the primary network structure of the undetected modules. Thus, we have developed a simple iterative Network Partition (iNP) algorithm to partition a network. The iNP algorithm provides a general framework in which any modularity-based algorithm can be implemented in the network partition step. Here, we tested iNP with three modularity-based algorithms: multi-step greedy (MSG), spectral clustering and Qcut. Compared with the original three methods, iNP achieved a significant improvement in the quality of network partition in a benchmark study with simulated networks, identified more modules with significantly better enrichment of functionally related genes in both yeast protein complex network and breast cancer gene co-expression network, and discovered more cancer-specific modules in the cancer gene co-expression network. As such, iNP should have a broad application as a general method to assist in the analysis of biological networks.
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... more
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... more
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... more