Mutations of the transcription factor FOXL2, involved in cranio-facial and ovarian development, lead to the Blepharophimosis Syndrome. Here, we have systematically replaced the amino acids of the helices of the forkhead domain (FHD) of FOXL2 by glycine residues to assess the impact of such substitutions. A number of mutations lead to protein mislocalization, aggregation and to partial or complete loss of transactivation ability on a series of luciferase reporter systems. To rationalize the results of this glycine mutation scan, we have modeled the structure of the FHD by comparison with crystallographic data available for other FHDs. We failed to detect a clear-cut correlation between protein mislocalization or aggregation and the position of the mutation. However, we found that the localization of the side chain of each amino acid strongly correlated with the impact of its mutation on FOXL2 transactivation capacity. Indeed, when the side chains of the amino acids involved in the helices of the forkhead are supposed to point towards the hydrophobic core formed by the three main helices, a loss of function was observed. On the contrary, if the side chains point outward the hydrophobic core, protein function was preserved. The extension of this analysis to natural mutants shows that a similar correlation can be found for BPES mutations associated or not with ovarian dysfunction. Our findings reveal new insights into the molecular effects of FOXL2 mutations affecting the FHD, which represent two-thirds of intragenic mutations, and provide the first predictive tool of their effects.
Todeschini, A.-L., Dipietromaria, A., L'Hote, D., Boucham, F. Z., Georges, A. B., Pandaranayaka, P. J. E., Krishnaswamy, S., Rivals, I., Bazin, C., Veitia, R. A.
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... more
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... more
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... more