The possibility of the development of the solid phase bioluminescent biotest using aerial mycelium of luminous fungi was investigated. Effect of organic and inorganic toxic compounds (TC) at concentrations from 10−6 to 1 mg/ml on luminescence of aerial mycelia of four species of luminous fungi—Armillaria borealis (Culture Collection of the Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences), A. mellea, A. gallica, and Lampteromyces japonicus (Fungi Collection of the Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences)—has been studied. Culture of A. mellea was shown to be most sensitive to solutions of the model TC. It was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the luminous fungi is comparable with the sensitivity of the bacteria that are used for environmental monitoring. Use of the aerial mycelium of luminous fungi on the solid support as a test object is a promising approach in biotesting for the development of continuous biosensors for air monitoring.