Paradigms in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections have shifted dramatically as a result of recent scientific revelations. Beyond extracellular colonization of the bladder luminal surface, as traditional clinical thinking would hold, uropathogenic bacteria direct a complex, intracellular cascade that shelters bacteria from host defenses and leads to persistent bacterial residence within the epithelium. After epithelial invasion, many organisms are promptly expelled by bladder epithelial cells; a minority establish a niche in the cytoplasm that results in the development of biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities and serves as the primary location for bacterial expansion. Exfoliation of the superficial epithelial layer acts to reduce the bacterial load but facilitates chronic residence of small nests of bacteria that later reemerge to cause some episodes of recurrent cystitis, a familiar clinical scenario in otherwise healthy women. Advances in both in vitro and animal models of cystitis pr...
Avian faunas vary greatly among montane areas; those at high latitudes are biologically impoverished, whereas those of some low-latitude mountains are biologically very complex. Their high level of species richness is caused by the aggregation of many small-ranged species, which has been di ... more
Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon that operates during severe perturbations of homeostasis, such as infection, injury, and exposure to contaminants, and is triggered by innate immune receptors that recognize pathogens and damaged cells. Among vertebrates, the inflammatory cascade is a ... more
The human body is inhabited by billions of microbial cells and these microbial symbionts play critical roles in human health. Human-associated microbial communities are diverse, and the structure of these communities is variable across body habitats, through time, and between individuals. W ... more