Classification & external resources
Tic disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped, involuntary movements). Tic disorders are defined similarly by the World Health Organization (ICD-10 codes).
Tic disorders are classified as follows:
- Transient tic disorder consists of multiple motor and/or phonic tics with duration of at least 4 weeks, but less than 12 months.
- Chronic tic disorder is either single or multiple motor or phonic tics, but not both, which are present for more than a year.
- Tourette's disorder is diagnosed when both motor and phonic tics are present for more than a year.
- Tic Disorder NOS is diagnosed when tics are present, but do not meet the criteria for any specific tic disorder.
Tic disorders onset in childhood (before the age of 18), and are not due to the effects of medication or another medical condition.
DSM-IV-TR diagnosis codes for the tic disorders are:
- 307.20 Tic Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)
- 307.21 Transient Tic Disorder
- 307.22 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder
- 307.23 Tourette's Disorder
ICD10 diagnosis codes are: 
- F95.0 Transient tic disorder
- F95.1 Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder
- F95.2 Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder [de la Tourette]
- F95.8 Other tic disorders
- F95.9 Tic disorder, unspecified
A large, community-based study suggested that over 19% of school-age children have tic disorders. The children with tic disorders in that study were usually undiagnosed. (Kurlan) As many as 1 in 100 people may experience some form of tic disorder, usually before the onset of puberty. (NIH) Tourette syndrome is the more severe expression of a spectrum of tic disorders, which are thought to be due to the same genetic vulnerability. Nevertheless, most cases of Tourette syndrome are not severe. Although a good body of investigative work indicates genetic linkage of the various tic disorders, further study is needed to confirm the relationship.
Treatment of tic disorders, although not usually necessary, is similar to treatment of Tourette syndrome. Tics should be distinguished from other causes of tourettism.
- ^ Evidente VG. "Is it a tic or Tourette's? Clues for differentiating simple from more complex tic disorders". Postgraduate medicine108 (5): 175-6, 179-82. PMID 11043089 Retrieved on 2007-05-24
- ^ DSM-IV-TR: numerical listing of codes and diagnoses. BehaveNet® Clinical Capsule. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
- ^ ICD Version 2006. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
- ^ Kurlan R, McDermott MP, Deeley C, et al. "Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren and association with placement in special education". Neurology 57 (8): 1383-8. PMID 11673576
- ^ Swerdlow NR. "Tourette syndrome: current controversies and the battlefield landscape". Current neurology and neuroscience reports. 5 (5): 329-31. PMID 16131414
- Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Retrieved on 2005-03-23
- The Tourette Syndrome Classification Study Group. "Definitions and classification of tic disorders". Arch. Neurol. 50 (10): 1013-6. PMID 8215958. Retrieved on 2005-03-22
|WHO ICD-10 mental and behavioural disorders (F · 290–319)|
|Neurological/symptomatic||Dementia (Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct dementia, Pick's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, AIDS dementia complex, Frontotemporal dementia) · Delirium · Post-concussion syndrome|
|Psychoactive substance||alcohol (drunkenness, alcohol dependence, delirium tremens, Korsakoff's syndrome, alcohol abuse) · opiods (opioid dependency) · sedative/hypnotic (benzodiazepine withdrawal) · cocaine (cocaine dependence) · general (Intoxication, Drug abuse, Physical dependence, Withdrawal)|
|Psychotic disorder||Schizophrenia (disorganized schizophrenia) · Schizotypal personality disorder · Delusional disorder · Folie à deux · Schizoaffective disorder|
|Mood (affective)||Mania · Bipolar disorder · Clinical depression · Cyclothymia · Dysthymia|
|Anxiety disorder (Agoraphobia, Panic disorder, Panic attack, Generalized anxiety disorder, Social anxiety) · OCD · Acute stress reaction · PTSD · Adjustment disorder · Conversion disorder (Ganser syndrome) · Somatoform disorder (Somatization disorder, Body dysmorphic disorder, Hypochondriasis, Nosophobia, Da Costa's syndrome, Psychalgia) · Neurasthenia|
|Eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa) · Sleep disorder (dyssomnia, insomnia, hypersomnia, parasomnia, night terror, nightmare) · Sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, vaginismus, dyspareunia, hypersexuality) · Postpartum depression|
|Personality disorder · Passive-aggressive behavior · Kleptomania · Trichotillomania · Voyeurism · Factitious disorder · Munchausen syndrome · Ego-dystonic sexual orientation|
|Mental retardation||Mental retardation|
|Specific: speech and language (expressive language disorder, aphasia, expressive aphasia, receptive aphasia, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, lisp) · Scholastic skills (dyslexia, dysgraphia, Gerstmann syndrome) · Motor function (developmental dyspraxia)|
Pervasive: Autism · Rett syndrome · Asperger syndrome
|Behavioural and emotional,|
childhood and adolescence onset
|ADHD · Conduct disorder · Oppositional defiant disorder · Separation anxiety disorder · Selective mutism · Reactive attachment disorder · Tic disorder · Tourette syndrome · Speech (stuttering · cluttering)|