| Structural formula of TRH
| Other data
|| Chr. 3 q13.3-q21
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF), thyroliberin or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary.
TRH is produced by the hypothalamus, near the paraventricular nucleus.
It travels across the median eminence to the pituitary via the hypophyseal portal system. It is released from cells called thyrotropes.
In addition to the brain, TRH can also be detected in other areas of the body including the gastrointestinal system and pancreatic islets.
The sequence of TRH was first determined and the hormone synthesized by Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally in 1969.
Its molecular weight is 359.5 Da.
Its structure is: (pyro)Glu-His-Pro-NH2
It is used in pharmacology (brand name Relefact TRH®) to test the response of the anterior pituitary gland.
Medical preparations of TRH are used in diagnostic tests of thyroid disorders and in acromegaly.
- Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor
A TRH test may be indicated if secondary hypothyroidism is suspected. Some patients may have low levels of circulating thyroid hormones and secondary hypothyroidism as a result of damage to the hypothalamic or pituitary control mechanisms that regulate thyroid function. The hypothalamus makes a small hormone called TRH that directs the synthesis and secretion of TSH from the pituitary gland. If these normal regulatory mechanisms are interrupted, the pituitary may not be able to produce appropriate levels of TSH and levels of thyroid hormones may decline, although the TSH remains appropriately normal. The TRH test involves administration of a small amount of TRH intravenously, following which levels of TSH will be measured at several subsequent time points using samples of blood taken from a peripheral vein. Patients with normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) respond by increasing the levels of TSH following TRH injection. Patients with compromised HPA function may exhibit a delayed, blunted, or absent response to TRH administration.TRH may cause nausea, vomiting and some patients experience an urge to urinate. Rarely, TRH may cause blood vessel constriction leading to hemorrhage in patients with pre-existing pituitary tumors. Accordingly, patients should be advised about the risks, albeit rare, of TRH testing.[www.mythyroid.com/TRHtest]
- ^ Taylor T, Wondisford F, Blaine T, Weintraub B (1990). "The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus has a major role in thyroid hormone feedback regulation of thyrotropin synthesis and secretion". Endocrinology 126 (1): 317-24. PMID 2104587.
- ^ http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/tsh.html
- ^ Boler J, Enzmann F, Folkers K, Bowers CY, Schally AV. The identity of chemical and hormonal properties of the thyrotropin releasing hormone and pyroglutamyl-histidyl-proline amide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1969;37:705-10. PMID 4982117
- ^ Burgus R, Dunn TF, Desiderio D, Guillemin R. Molecular structure of the hypothalamic hypophysiotropic TRF factor of ovine origin: mass spectrometry demonstration of the PCA-His-Pro-NH2 sequence. Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 1969;269:1870–1873.
|Endocrine system: hormones/endocrine glands (Peptide hormones, Steroid hormones)|
|Hypothalamic-pituitary|| Hypothalamus: TRH, CRH , GnRH, GHRH, somatostatin, dopamine - Posterior pituitary: vasopressin, oxytocin - Anterior pituitary: α (FSH, LH, TSH), GH, prolactin, POMC (ACTH, MSH, endorphins, lipotropin)|
|Adrenal axis|| Adrenal medulla: epinephrine, norepinephrine - Adrenal cortex: aldosterone, cortisol, DHEA|
|Thyroid axis|| Thyroid: thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) - calcitonin - Parathyroid: PTH|
|Gonadal axis||Testis: testosterone, AMH, inhibin - Ovary: estradiol, progesterone, inhibin/activin, relaxin (pregnancy)|
|Other end. glands|| Pancreas: glucagon, insulin, somatostatin - Pineal gland: melatonin|
|Non-end. glands|| Placenta: hCG, HPL, estrogen, progesterone - Kidney: renin, EPO, calcitriol, prostaglandin - Heart atrium: ANP - Stomach: gastrin, ghrelin - Duodenum: CCK, GIP, secretin, motilin, VIP - Ileum: enteroglucagon - Adipose tissue: leptin, adiponectin, resistin - Thymus: Thymosin - Thymopoietin - Skeleton: Osteocalcin - Liver/other: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, IGF-2)|
|Target-derived||NGF, BDNF, NT-3|