Classification & external resources
|| I80., I82.1
Thrombophlebitis is phlebitis (vein inflammation) related to a blood clot or thrombus. When it occurs repeatedly in different locations, it is known as "Thrombophlebitis migrans" or "migrating thrombophlebitis".
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Thrombophlebitis (another medical term is "White Leg") is related to a blood clot (thrombus) in the vein. Risk factors include prolonged sitting and disorders related to blood clotting. Specific disorders associated with thrombophlebitis include superficial thrombophlebitis (affects veins near the skin surface) and deep venous thrombosis (affects deeper, larger veins).
The following symptoms are often (but not always) associated with thrombophlebitis:
- pain in the part of the body affected
- skin redness or inflammation (not always present)
- swelling (edema) of the extremities (ankle and foot)
Signs and tests
The health care provider makes the diagnosis primarily based on the appearance of the affected area. Frequent checks of the pulse, blood pressure, temperature, skin condition, and circulation may be required.
If the cause is not readily identifiable, tests may be performed to determine the cause, including the following:
For more specific recommendations, see the particular condition. In general, treatment may include the following:
The patient may be advised to do the following:
- Elevate the affected area to reduce swelling.
- Keep pressure off of the area to reduce pain and decrease the risk of further damage.
- Apply moist heat to reduce inflammation and pain.
- Surgical removal, stripping, or bypass of the vein is rarely needed but may be recommended in some situations.
Thrombophlebitis and other forms of phlebitis usually respond to prompt medical treatment.
Complications are rare, but when they occur they can be serious. The most serious complication ocurs when the blood clot dislodges, travelling through the heart and occluding the dense capillary network of the lungs; this is a Pulmonary Embolism and is extremely life threatening.
Routine changing of intravenous (IV) lines helps to prevent phlebitis related to IV lines. See the specific disorders associated with thrombophlebitis for other preventive measures.
- Thrombophlebitis. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Public domain text. Update Date: 4/19/2004. Updated by: Brian F. Burke M.D., Department of Internal Medicine, Munson Medical Center, Traverse City, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
|Circulatory system pathology (I, 390-459)|
|Hypertension||Hypertensive heart disease - Hypertensive nephropathy - Secondary hypertension (Renovascular hypertension)|
|Ischaemic heart disease||Angina pectoris (Prinzmetal's angina) - Myocardial infarction - Dressler's syndrome|
|Pulmonary circulation||Pulmonary embolism - Cor pulmonale|
|Pericardium||Pericarditis - Pericardial effusion - Cardiac tamponade|
|Endocardium/heart valves||Endocarditis - mitral valves (regurgitation, prolapse, stenosis) - aortic valves (stenosis, insufficiency) - pulmonary valves (stenosis, insufficiency) - tricuspid valves (stenosis, insufficiency)|
|Myocardium||Myocarditis - Cardiomyopathy (Dilated cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Loeffler endocarditis, Restrictive cardiomyopathy) - Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia|
|Electrical conduction system|
of the heart
|Heart block: AV block (First degree, Second degree, Third degree) - Bundle branch block (Left, Right) - Bifascicular block - Trifascicular block|
Pre-excitation syndrome (Wolff-Parkinson-White, Lown-Ganong-Levine) - Long QT syndrome - Adams-Stokes syndrome - Cardiac arrest - Sudden cardiac death
Arrhythmia: Paroxysmal tachycardia (Supraventricular, AV nodal reentrant, Ventricular) - Atrial flutter - Atrial fibrillation - Ventricular fibrillation - Premature contraction (Atrial, Ventricular) - Ectopic pacemaker - Sick sinus syndrome
|Other heart conditions||Heart failure - Cardiovascular disease - Cardiomegaly - Ventricular hypertrophy (Left, Right)|
|Cerebrovascular diseases||Intracranial hemorrhage/cerebral hemorrhage: Extra-axial hemorrhage (Epidural hemorrhage, Subdural hemorrhage, Subarachnoid hemorrhage)|
Intra-axial hematoma (Intraventricular hemorrhages, Intraparenchymal hemorrhage) - Anterior spinal artery syndrome - Binswanger's disease - Moyamoya disease
|Atherosclerosis (Renal artery stenosis) - Aortic dissection/Aortic aneurysm (Abdominal aortic aneurysm) - Aneurysm - Raynaud's phenomenon/Raynaud's disease - Buerger's disease - Vasculitis/Arteritis (Aortitis) - Intermittent claudication - Arteriovenous fistula - Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia - Spider angioma|
|Veins, lymphatic vessels|
and lymph nodes
|Thrombosis/Phlebitis/Thrombophlebitis (Deep vein thrombosis, May-Thurner syndrome, Portal vein thrombosis, Venous thrombosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, Renal vein thrombosis, Paget-Schroetter disease) - Varicose veins / Portacaval anastomosis (Hemorrhoid, Esophageal varices, Varicocele, Gastric varices, Caput medusae) - Superior vena cava syndrome - Lymph (Lymphadenitis, Lymphedema, Lymphangitis)|
|Other||Hypotension (Orthostatic hypotension)|
|See also congenital (Q20-Q28, 745-747) |