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Third party reproduction
Third party reproduction refers to a process where another person provides sperm or eggs or where another woman provides her uterus so that a woman can have a child. Thus the reproductive process goes beyond the traditional father-mother model. However, the third party's involvement is limited to the reproductive process and does not extend into the raising of the child. One can separate:
Thus a child can have a genetic and social (non-genetic, non-biologic) father, and a genetic, gestational , and social (non-biologic) mother, and any combinations thereof. Theoretically a child thus could have 5 parents.
Surrogacy includes, in its wider sense, all situations where a surrogate carries a pregnancy for another person. Recently, there has been a tendency to separate the gestational carrier situation from the "true" surrogate restricting the term for a woman who provides a combination of ovum donation and gestational carrier services.
In a 'conventional surrogacy', a surrogate agrees to be inseminated with the sperm of the male partner of the 'commissioning' couple, or with sperm provided by a sperm donor. The surrogate is inseminated, conceives, and hands over the baby at the completion of the pregnancy. A famous case involving paternity rights and surrogacy is the Baby M case.
In a 'gestational surrogacy', a surrogate agrees to the implantation in her of an embryo which may be created either by using an egg provided by the woman of the 'commissioning' couple, or by the 'commissioning' woman. Alternatively, an egg provided by a donor may be used. The embryo implanted in the surrogate may be fertilised using sperm from the male partner of the 'commissioning couple', or by using sperm provided by a sperm donor.
Embryo donation is where extra embryos from a successful IVF of a couple are given to other couples or women for transfer with the goal of producing a successful pregnancy. Embryos for embryo donation may also be created specifically for embryo transfer using donor eggs and sperm. It may thus be seen as a combination of sperm donation and egg donation, since what is donated is a combination of these. Such embryos may also be donated to a 'commissioning' woman or a 'commissioning' couple and gestated by a surrogate where, for example, the 'commissioning' woman or the woman of the 'commissioning' couple is infertile and is also unable to bring a pregnancy to full term.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Third_party_reproduction". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|