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TLR-2 is the name for a biomolecule, which plays a role in the human immune system. It is a membrane protein, a receptor, which sits on the surface of certain cells and which can recognize native or foreign substances, and passes on appropriate signals to the cell and/or the nervous system.
The TLR-2 discussed here is member of a large family of homologous Toll-like receptors (TLRs).
TLR-2 is a membrane receptor found at the surface of immune system cells that recognises many bacterial, fungal, viral and endogenous substances. Phagocytosis of bound materials takes place in endosome/phagosome and a cellular activation, so that the elements of the innate immune system take over such as macrophages, PMN and dendritic cells tasks of the nonspecific immune defense, B1a and form MZB first anti-bodies and uses in the process the specific anti-body formation. Here cytokine is involved e.g. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α) and different interleukins (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12). Before TLRs were discovered, some of the materials specified below were grouped under the term so-called "Moduline". By that rather Th1 appropriate cytokine pattern is seen in most experimental models an immune deviation this way, away of the Th2-expression. Conjugates are developed as vaccines or already used without a priori knowledge.
One only 2006 recognized characteristic is the expression of the TLR-2 on the Tregs (special form of the T-cells), which is brought equally to TCR determined proliferation and functional inactivity. Thereby, a disinhibition of the early inflammation phase and the specific anti-body formation is reached. After reduction of the exciter number many exciter-specific Tregs are present, which, now without TLR-2-Signal, become active and the specific like the inflammatory immune reaction to restrain (see also TGF beta, Interleukin 10). Older literature, which attributes a direct immune stimulation effect over TLR-2 to a given substance, must be interpreted under circumstances that the used TLR-2-knockouts has regularly quite few Tregs.
TLR-2 is expressed on microglia, Schwann cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, B-cells (B1a, MZB, B2), T-cells including regulatory T cells (CD4, CD25). TLR-2 is likewise in the epithelium of the bronchial tube and the alveoli.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "TLR_2". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|