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Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps 6 to 72 hours after infection. In most cases, the illness lasts 3 to 7 days—most affected persons recover without treatment. However, in some persons the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient becomes dangerously dehydrated and must be taken to a hospital. At the hospital, the patients will receive intravenous fluids to treat their dehydration and medications may be given to provide symptomatic relief, like fever reduction. In severe cases, the Salmonella infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream, and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics. The elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems are more likely to have a severe illness. Some people afflicted with Salmonellosis later experience reactive arthritis, which can have long-lasting, disabling effects.
The type of salmonella usually associated with infections in humans is called Non-Typhoidal Salmonella. It is usually contracted by ingesting raw or undercooked eggs, or from sources such as:
A rarer form of salmonella called Typhoidal Salmonella can lead to typhoid fever. It is only carried by humans and is usually contracted through direct contact with the fecal matter of an infected person. It therefore mainly occurs in countries that do not have proper systems for handling human waste.
Both Salmonellosis and the Salmonella type of microorganisms derive their names from a modern Latin coining after Daniel E. Salmon 1850–1914, an American Veterinary surgeon. He had help from Theobald Smith, and together they found the bacterium in pigs.
The bacterium induces responses in the animal that it is infecting and this is probably what causes the symptoms rather than any direct toxin. They are usually gastrointestinal including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea with mucus. Headache, fatigue and rose spots are also possible. These symptoms can be severe especially in the old and very young. Symptoms last generally up to a week, and can appear 6 to 72 hours after bacterium ingestion.
After bacterial infections, reactive arthritis (aka Reiters Syndrome) can develop. In sickle-cell anemia, osteomyelitis due to Salmonella infection is much more common than in the general population.
Incidents of salmonellosis
In June 2006, the BBC reported that the Cadbury chocolate manufacturer withdrew a number of products when products contaminated with salmonella caused up to 56 cases of Salmonellosis. The problems had been traced to a leaking pipe at a Cadbury plant in Herefordshire in January 2006, though the announcement was not made until June.
The U.S. Government reported that 16.3% of all chickens were contaminated with salmonella in 2005, and in the late 1990s as many as 20% were contaminated. In the mid to late twentieth century, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was a common contaminant of eggs. This is much less common now with the advent of hygiene measures in egg production and the vaccination of laying hens to prevent salmonella colonization. Many different salmonella serovars also cause severe diseases in animals other than human beings.
In February 2007, the U.S. FDA issued a warning to consumers not to eat certain jars of Peter Pan peanut butter or Great Value peanut butter due to risk of contamination with 'Salmonella Tennessee'. 
In March 2007, around 150 people were diagnosed with salmonella-poisoning after eating tainted food at a governor's reception in Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Over 1,500 people attended the ball on March 1 and fell ill as a consequence of ingesting salmonella-tainted sandwiches.
In December 2007, about 150 people were sickened by salmonella-tainted chocolate cake produced by a major bakery chain in Singapore. 
The Four-Inch Law refers to a regulation passed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1975 outlawing the sale of turtles with a carapace length of less than four inches. Exceptions are present for scientific and educational use, export, and private sale.
The law was enacted, according to the FDA, "because of the public health impact of turtle-associated salmonellosis". There had been reported cases of young children placing small turtles in their mouths, which led to the size-based restriction.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Salmonellosis". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|