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Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases and vision care in children.
Pediatric ophthalmologists are physicians who have completed medical school, a 1-year internship, 3-year residency in ophthalmology, and a 1-2 year fellowship in pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. Pediatric ophthalmology fellowships in the United States are accredited by the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.
Pediatric ophthalmologists focus on the development of the visual system and the various diseases that disrupt visual development in children. Pediatric ophthalmologists also have expertise in managing the various ocular diseases that affect children. Pediatric ophthalmologists are qualified to perform complex eye surgery as well as to manage children's eye problems using glasses and medications. Many ophthalmologists and other physicians refer pediatric patients to a pediatric ophthalmologist for examination and management of ocular problems due to children's unique needs. In addition to children with obvious vision problems, children with head turns, head tilts, squinting of the eyes, or preferred head postures are typically referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist for evaluation.
Eye problems in children
Children experience a variety of eye problems, many quite distinct from adult eye diseases. Pediatric ophthalmologists are specially trained to manage the following disorders:
Pediatric ophthalmologists often work in conjunction with orthoptists in the treatment of strabismus.
Frank D. Costenbader was an American physician frequently credited as the world's first pediatric ophthalmologist. Costenbader and Marshall M. Parks (his mentee who would later be known to many as "the father of pediatric ophthalmology") began the first ophthalmology fellowship trained program of any subspecialty at the Children's Hospital in Washington, D.C., now known as the Children's National Medical Center. Parks trained many pediatric ophthalmologists during his career and was instrumental in the establishment of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, a national organization dedicated to improving the quality and management of pediatric ocular disease. Over time, over 30 programs were developed for the training of pediatric ophthalmologists throughout the United States. The American Academy of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus works with the American Academy of Pediatrics on issues related to pediatric eye disease and vision screening guidelines.
Other notable pediatric ophthalmologists have included: Arthur Jampolsky, Jack Crawford, Phillip Knapp, Gunter K. von Noorden, David S. Friendly, Eugene Helveston, William E. Scott, John Pratt-Johnson, Mette Warburg, Barrie Jay, Henry Metz, Arthur Rosenbaum, John T. Flynn, David Guyton, and Burton J. Kushner.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Pediatric_ophthalmology". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|