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Virions are enveloped and can be spherical, filamentous or pleomorphic. Fusion proteins and attachment proteins appear as spikes on the virion surface. Matrix proteins inside the envelope stabilise virus structure. The nucleocapsid core is composed of the genomic RNA, nucleocapsid proteins, phosphoproteins and polymerase proteins.
Each gene contains transcription start/stoconsists of a single segment of negative-sense RNA, 15-19 kilobases in length and containing 6-10 genes. Extracistronic (non-coding) ng for morbilliregions include:
The gene sequence is:conserved across the family due to a phenomenon known as transcriptional polarity (see Mononegavirales) in which genes closest to the 3’ end of the genome are transcribed in greater abundance than those towards the 5’ end. This mechanism acts as length
A number of important human diseases are caused by paramyxoviruses. These include mumps, measles, which caused 745,000 deaths in 2001 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) which is the major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and children.
The parainfluenza viruses are the second most common causes of respiratory tract disease in infants and children. They can cause pneumonia, bronchitis and croup in children and the elderly.
Human metapneumovirus, initially described in about 2001, is also implicated in bronchitis, especially in children.
Paramyxoviruses are also responsible for a range of diseases in other animal species, for example canine distemper virus (dogs), phocine distemper virus (seals), cetacean morbillivirus (dolphins and porpoises) Newcastle disease virus (birds) and rinderpest virus (cattle). Some paramyxoviruses such as the henipaviruses are zoonotic pathogens, occurring naturally in an animal host, but also able to infect humans.
Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) in the genus Henipavirus have emerged in humans and livestock in Australia and Southeast Asia. Both viruses are contagious, highly virulent, and capable of infecting a number of mammalian species and causing potentially fatal disease. Due to the lack of a licensed vaccine or antiviral therapies, HeV and NiV are designated as biosafety level (BSL) 4 agents. The genomic structure of both viruses is that of a typical paramyxovirus.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Paramyxovirus". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|