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Classification & external resources
Mirizzi's syndrome is a rare cause of acquired jaundice. It is caused by chronic cholecystitis and large gallstones resulting in stenosis of the common hepatic duct.
Occurs in approximately 0.1% of patients with gallstone disease and 0.7-1.4% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy
It affects males and females equally, but tends to affect older people more often. There is no evidence of race having any bearing on the epidemiology.
Multiple and large gallstones can reside chronically in the Hartmann's pouch of the gallbladder, causing inflammation, necrosis, scarring and ultimately fistula formation into the adjacent common bile duct (CBD). As a result, the CBD becomes obstructed by either scar or stone, resulting in jaundice. It can be divided into four types. Type I does not involve a fistula at all. Type II- IV involve fistulas of different sizes.
Type II is classified as a fistula of <33%of the CBD width, Type III Mirizzi Syndrome involves a fistula between 33% and 66% of the CBD width, and Type IV involves a fistula of greater than 66% of the CBD width.
Mirizzi syndrome has no consistent or unique clinical features that distinguish it from other more common forms of obstructive jaundice. Symptoms of recurrent cholangitis, jaundice, right upper quadrant pain, and elevated bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase may or may not be present. Acute presentations of the syndrome include pancreatitis or cholecystitis.
CT scan or ultrasonography usually make the diagnosis. Often, ERCP is used to define the lesion anatomically prior to surgery.
The treatment of choice is surgical excision of the gallbladder, and reconstruction of the common hepatic duct and common bile duct.
It is named for Pablo Mirizzi.
- ^ Hazzan, D; D Golijanin, P Reissman, SN Adler, E Shiloni (06 1999). "Combined endoscopic and surgical management of Mirizzi syndrome". Surgical Endoscopy 13 (6): 618–20. PMID 10347304. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
- ^ Ross, Jeffrey W; Gary S Sudakoff, Gregory B Snyder, Neela Lamki (editor), Bernard D Coombs (editor), Abraham H Dachman (editor), Robert M Krasny (editor), John Karani (editor) (2006-12-29). Mirizzi syndrome. eMedicine. WebMD. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
- ^ synd/3587 at Who Named It
- ^ Mirizzi PL: Syndrome del conducto hepatico. J Int de Chir 1948; 8: 731-77
|Digestive system - Gastroenterology (primarily K20-K93, 530-579)|
|Esophagus||Esophagitis - GERD - Achalasia - Boerhaave syndrome - Nutcracker esophagus - Zenker's diverticulum - Mallory-Weiss syndrome - Barrett's esophagus|
|Peptic (gastric/duodenal) ulcer - Gastritis - Gastroenteritis - Duodenitis - Dyspepsia - Pyloric stenosis - Achlorhydria - Gastroparesis - Gastroptosis - Portal hypertensive gastropathy|
|Hernia||Inguinal (Indirect, Direct) - Femoral - Umbilical - Incisional - Diaphragmatic - Hiatus|
|Noninfective enteritis and colitis||IBD (Crohn's, Ulcerative colitis) - noninfective gastroenteritis|
|Other intestinal||vascular (Abdominal angina, Mesenteric ischemia, Ischemic colitis, Angiodysplasia) - Ileus/Bowel obstruction (Intussusception, Volvulus) - Diverticulitis/Diverticulosis - IBS|
other functional intestinal disorders (Constipation, Diarrhea, Megacolon/Toxic megacolon, Proctalgia fugax) - Anal fissure/Anal fistula - Anal abscess - Rectal prolapse - Proctitis (Radiation proctitis)
|Liver/hepatitis||Alcoholic liver disease - Liver failure (Acute liver failure) - Cirrhosis - PBC - NASH - Fatty liver - Peliosis hepatis - Portal hypertension - Hepatorenal syndrome|
|Accessory digestive||Gallbladder (Gallstones, Choledocholithiasis, Cholecystitis, Cholesterolosis, Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses)
Biliary tree (Cholangitis, Cholestasis/Mirizzi's syndrome, PSC, Biliary fistula, Ascending cholangitis)
Pancreas (Acute pancreatitis, Chronic pancreatitis, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Hereditary pancreatitis)
|Other/general||Appendicitis - Peritonitis (Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis)
Malabsorption (celiac, Tropical sprue, Blind loop syndrome, Whipple's)
postprocedural: Gastric dumping syndrome - Postcholecystectomy syndrome
bleeding: Hematemesis - Melena - Gastrointestinal bleeding (Upper, Lower)
|See also congenital|