List of phytochemicals and foods in which they are prominent
While there is ample evidence to support the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, evidence that these effects are due to specific nutrients or
phytochemicals is limited.
The following is a list of
phytochemicals present in commonly consumed foods.
– red, blue, purple pigments.
Flavonoids ( polyphenols)
Quercetin – red and yellow onions, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat, beans.
Gingerol – ginger.
Kaempferol – strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, peas, brassicates, chives.
Myricetin – grapes, walnuts.
Resveratrol – grape skins and seeds, wine, nuts, peanuts.
Rutin – citrus fruits, buckwheat, parsley, tomato, apricot, rhubarb, tea.
Catechins – white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, black-eyed peas.
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG)– green tea;
Theaflavin – black tea;
Theaflavin-3-gallate – black tea;
Theaflavin-3'-gallate – black tea;
Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate – black tea;
– red wine, many red, purple or blue Anthocyanins (flavonals) fruits and vegetables.
Pelargonidin – bilberry, raspberry, strawberry.
Peonidin – bilberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach.
Cyanidin – red apple & pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, loganberry, cocoa.
Delphinidin – bilberry, blueberry.
Malvidin – bilberry, blueberry.
Isoflavones ( phytoestrogens)
Daidzein (formononetin) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes.
Genistein (biochanin A) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes.
Glycitein – soy.
Chalcones Coumestans (
Coumestrol – red clover, alfalfa sprouts, soy, peas, brussels sprouts.
Ellagic acid – walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, guava, grapes.
Gallic acid – tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy.
Salicylic acid – peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat.
Tannic acid – nettles, tea, berries.
Vanillin – vanilla beans, cloves.
Capsaicin – chilli peppers.
Curcumin – turmeric, mustard. (Oxidizes to vanillin.)
Caffeic acid – burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple.
Chlorogenic acid – echinacea, strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries.
Cinnamic acid – aloe.
Ferulic acid – oats, rice, artichoke, orange, pineapple, apple, peanut.
Coumarin – citrus fruits, maize.
– seeds ( Lignans ( phytoestrogens) flax, sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy), whole grains (rye, oats, barley), bran ( wheat, oat, rye), fruits (particularly berries) and vegetables.
Silymarin – artichokes, milk thistle.
Matairesinol – flax seed, sesame seed, rye bran and meal, oat bran, poppy seed, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli.
Secoisolariciresinol – flax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, zucchini, blackcurrant, carrots.
Pinoresinol and lariciresinol –  sesame seed, Brassica vegetables
- orange pigments
α- Carotene – to vitamin A, in carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange.
β-Carotene – to vitamin A, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
Lycopene – tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots.
Phytofluene – star fruit, sweet potato, orange.
Phytoene – sweet potato, orange.
- yellow pigments.
Canthaxanthin – paprika.
Cryptoxanthin – mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi.
Zeaxanthin – spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, oranges.
Astaxanthin – microalge, yeast, krill, shrimp, salmon, lobsters, and some crabs
Lutein – spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, legumes, brassicates, prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear.
Rubixanthin – rose hips.
Limonene – oils of citrus, cherries, spearmint, dill, garlic, celery, maize, rosemary, ginger, basil.
Perillyl alcohol – citrus oils, caraway, mints.
Saponins – soybeans, beans, other legumes, maize, alfalfa.
– Phytosterols almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, maize, soybeans, many vegetable oils.
Campesterol - buckwheat.
beta Sitosterol – rice bran, wheat germ, corn oils, fennel, peanuts, soybeans, hawthorn, basil, buckwheat.
Stigmasterol – buckwheat.
Tocopherols (vitamin E) omega-3, – dark-green leafy vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts.
6,9 fatty acids Organosulfides
Sulphoraphane – Brassicales.
Thiosulphonates (allium compounds)
Allyl methyl trisulfide – garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots.
Diallyl sulfide – garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots.
Indole-3-carbinol – cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens.
Other organic acids
Oxalic acid – orange, spinach, rhubarb, tea and coffee, banana, ginger, almond, sweet potato, bell pepper.
Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) – cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin, beans, almonds.
Tartaric acid – apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes.
http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/lignans ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15877880&query_hl=35&itool=pubmed_docsum ^
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