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Casual examples of interaction outside of science include:
Chemistry and medicine
In medicine, most medications can be safely used with other medicines, but particular combinations of medicines need to be monitored for interactions, often by the pharmacist. In molecular biology, the knowledge on gene/protein interaction among themselves and with their metabolites is referred to as molecular pathways.
Interactions between medications (drug interactions) fall generally into one of two main categories; pharmacodynamic (involving the actions of the two interacting drugs), and pharmacokinetic (involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of one or both of the interacting drugs upon the other).
In terms of efficacy, there can be three types of interactions between medications: additive, synergistic, and antagonistic. Additive interaction means the effect of two chemicals is equal to the sum of the effect of the two chemicals taken separately. This is usually due to the two chemicals acting on the body in the same way. Examples would be Aspirin and Motrin, Alcohol and Depressant, Tranquilizer and Painkiller. Synergistic interaction means that the effect of two chemicals taken together is greater than the sum of their separate effect at the same doses. An example is Pesticide and Fertilizer, the biological effect is devastating. Antagonistic interaction means that the effect of two chemicals is actually less than the sum of the effect of the two drugs taken independently of each other. This is because the second chemical increases the excretion of the first, or even directly blocks its toxic actions. Antagonism forms the basis for antidotes of poisonings. An example is Asparagus and birth control pills.
In communications, interactive communication occurs when sources take turns transmitting messages between one another. This should be distinguished from transactive communication, in which sources transmit messages simultaneously. Included in this category are all new modes of communication such as cable video, teletext, videotext, teleshopping, video on demand, computers, Internet, tele-conferencing etc. Tele-communication also falls under this category. so cell phones, pagers, mobile phones, and electronic mail are interactive communications. these can be classified under three headings:
1. Interpersonal : Telephone and its allied services. 2. Group : Tele-conference. video-conference. 3. Mass : Internet, world wide web
In media, interactivity is a feature of the media in question and as digital technology becomes more accessible to the masses interest in interactivity is increasing and becoming a cultural trend especially in the arts. Interactivity can exist in virtual spaces or in real space. With virtual interaction the interaction usually takes place in the space of a computer with the monitor providing visual cues and the keyboard and mouse allowing interaction. In physical space the interaction usually involves sensors, actuators and computer systems with code that allow interactive systems to respond to human position, touch and sound.
In physics, an interaction or force specifically refers to the action of one physical object upon another and results in a potential energy - the physical objects under consideration may range from point particles to quantum fields. For example, the interaction of charged particles takes place through the mediation of electromagnetic fields, whereas beta decay occurs by means of the weak interaction. There are believed to be four fundamental interactions in Nature.
In sociology, social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). Social interactions can be differentiated into accidental, repeated, regular, and regulated. Social interactions form the basis for social relations.
In statistics, an interaction is a term in a statistical model in which the effect of two, or more, variables is not simply additive.
An example from statistics applied to psychology
If the two variables were sex and premature birth we would describe any difference in scores between sexes as a good thing. Similarly any difference in scores of full term/premature birth would be described as a main effect. When describing the scores of one variable compared to the other this is describing the interaction, as the sets of scores are in effect different variables interacting with one another.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Interaction". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|