Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma
Classification & external resources
Hepatosplenic γδ T-cell lymphoma
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma is a systemic neoplasm comprised of medium-sized cytotoxic T-cells that show a significant sinusoidal infiltration in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
This lymphoma is rare, comprising less than 5% of all cases, and is most common in young adults and adolescents. A distinct male gender preference has been described.
The cell of origin for this disease is an immature cytotoxic T-cell clonally expressing the γδ T-cell receptor. This disease is seen more often in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients, an association that has led to the hypothesis that long-term immune stimulation in the setting of immunosuppression is the causative agent.
The typical clinical finding in a patient with hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma is hepatosplenomegaly.
The constellation of thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukocytosis is common in patients with hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma. The discovery of neoplastic cells in peripheral blood is often a finding late in the clinical course.
Sites of Involvement
The spleen and liver are always involved, with bone marrow involvement frequently present. Nodal involvement is exceedingly rare.
The neoplastic cells in this disorder show a monotonous appearance, with a small amount of cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli.
Spleen and liver
This disease shows a distinct sinusoidal pattern of infiltration which spares the splenic white pulp and hepatic portal triads.
While the bone marrow is commonly involved, the detection of the neoplastic infiltrate may be difficult due to diffuse, interstitial pattern. Immunohistochemistry can aid in the detection of this lymphoma.
Cells of a similar morphology observed in solid organs are observed in peripheral blood.
The immunophenotype for hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma is a post-thymic, immature T-cell.
|| CD3, TCRδ1, TIA-1
|| CD4, CD5, CD8
Clonal rearrangement of the γ gene of the T-cell receptor is the hallmark of this disease. A few cases have shown rearrangement of the T-cell receptor β gene. Isochromosome 7q has been observed in all cases described so far, sometimes in conjunction with other chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 8.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j  Jaffe E.S., Harris N.L., Stein H., Vardiman J.W. (eds): World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haemopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. IARC Press: Lyon 2001
- ^ a b c d e 
Cooke CB, Krenacs L, Stetler-Stevenson M, Greiner TC, Raffeld M, Kingma DW, Abruzzo L, Frantz C, Kaviani M, Jaffe ES. "Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity of cytotoxic gamma delta T-cell origin." Blood. 1996 Dec 1;88(11):4265-74. PMID: 8943863
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Ross CW, Schnitzer B, Sheldon S, Braun DK, Hanson CA. "Gamma/delta T-cell posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder primarily in the spleen." Am J Clin Pathol. 1994 Sep;102(3):310-5. PMID: 8085554
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Macon WR, Levy NB, Kurtin PJ, Salhany KE, Elkhalifa MY, Casey TT, Craig FE, Vnencak-Jones CL, Gulley ML, Park JP, Cousar JB. "Hepatosplenic alphabeta T-cell lymphomas: a report of 14 cases and comparison with hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphomas." Am J Surg Pathol. 2001 Mar;25(3):285-96. PMID: 11224598
- ^  Farcet JP, Gaulard P, Marolleau JP, Le Couedic JP, Henni T, Gourdin MF, Divine M, Haioun C, Zafrani S, Goossens M, et al. "Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma: sinusal/sinusoidal localization of malignant cells expressing the T-cell receptor gamma delta." Blood. 1990 Jun 1;75(11):2213-9. PMID: 2140703
- ^ 
Alonsozana EL, Stamberg J, Kumar D, Jaffe ES, Medeiros LJ, Frantz C, Schiffer CA, O'Connell BA, Kerman S, Stass SA, Abruzzo LV. "Isochromosome 7q: the primary cytogenetic abnormality in hepatosplenic gammadelta T cell lymphoma." Leukemia. 1997 Aug;11(8):1367-72. PMID: 9264394
|Hematological malignancy histology (ICD-O 9590-9989)|
|Lymphomas (9590-9759)||Hodgkin's lymphoma vs. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma - Diffuse lymphoma vs. Follicular lymphoma|
B-cell lymphoma (Small cell, Primary effusion, Diffuse large, ,Burkitt's, Splenic marginal zone, MALT)
mast cell tumor (Mast-cell sarcoma, Malignant mastocytosis, Malignant histiocytosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis)
T-cell lymphoma (Cutaneous , Mycosis fungoides/Sézary's disease, Angioimmunoblastic, Anaplastic large cell, Hepatosplenic)
plasma cell (Plasmacytoma, Multiple myeloma)
|Immunoproliferative disorders (9760-9799)||Waldenström macroglobulinemia - Lymphomatoid granulomatosis|
|Lymphoid leukemias (9800-9839)||ALL - CLL - T-cell leukemia (Adult, Large granular lymphocyte, Prolymphocytic, Acute lymphoblastic) - B-cell leukemia (Prolymphocytic)|
|Myeloid leukemias (9840-9939, 9963)||AML (M2, APL/M3, AMoL/M5, Erythroleukemia/M6) - CML (CMoL, CNL, Philadelphia chromosome) - Granulocytic sarcoma|
|Other leukemias (9940-9949)||Hairy cell leukemia - Aggressive NK-cell leukemia|
|Myeloproliferative disease (9950-9961)||Polycythemia vera - Essential thrombocytosis - Myelofibrosis|
|Other (9964-9989)||Hypereosinophilic syndrome - Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder - Myelodysplastic syndrome|