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Embryo donation is a form of third party reproduction. In vitro fertilisation often results in a number of frozen, unused embryos after the woman for whom they were originally created has successfully carried one or more pregnancies to term. In embryo donation, these extra embryos are given to other couples or women for transfer with the goal of producing a successful pregnancy. The resulting child is considered the child of the woman who carries it and gives birth, and not the child of the donor, the same as occurs with egg donation or sperm donation.
Alternatives to donating unused embryos are discarding them, keeping them frozen indefinitely, or donating them for use in embryonic stem cell research.
Legally, embryos are considered property and embryo donation is a transfer of ownership. Pro-life groups that oppose the destruction of embryos, however, sometimes use the term "embryo adoption" to place emphasis on their view that embryos should be seen as pre-born children rather than as potential children. They sometimes refer to frozen embryos and children resulting from their use as "snowflake children". Use of these terms is controversial, as this view is neither universally nor legally accepted. The matter gained another political dimension in the United States when Congress and the Bush administration gave $1 million to promote embryo adoption.
As of 2006, only there are only two agencies in the United States that use this terminology: Nightlight Christian Adoption, an otherwise conventional adoption agency, and Embryos Alive, which focuses exclusively on embryo adoption. Like conventional adoption agencies, they perform homestudies to screen prospective parents. As of 2006, Nighlight reported 110 successful births and 19 pregnancies in progress, and Embryos Alive reported 10 births and 3 pregnancies.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Embryo_donation". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|