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Classification & external resources
Disorganized schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This type is characterized by prominent disorganized behavior and speech (see formal thought disorder), and flat or inappropriate emotion and affect. Furthermore, the criteria for the catatonic subtype of schizophrenia must not have been met. This type of schizophrenia is also known as hebephrenia, and is named after the Greek goddess of youth, Hebe, in reference to the typical age of onset in puberty.
Unlike the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia, delusions and hallucinations are not the most prominent feature, although fragmentary delusions and hallucinations may be present.
The emotional responses of people diagnosed with this subtype can often seem strange or inappropriate to the situation. Inappropriate facial responses may be common and behavior is sometimes described as 'silly'. Complete lack of expressed emotion is sometimes seen, as is an apparent indifference, anhedonia (the lack of pleasure), and avolition (a lack of motivation). Some of these features are also present in other types of schizophrenia, but they are most prominent in Disorganized Schizophrenia.
This form of schizophrenia is typically associated with early onset (often between the ages of 15 and 25 years) and is thought to have a poor prognosis because of the rapid development of 'negative' symptoms and decline in social functioning.
Disorganized schizophrenia is thought to be an extreme expression of the 'disorganization syndrome' that has been hypothesised to be one aspect of a three-factor model of symptoms in schizophrenia The other factors being 'reality distortion' (involving delusions and hallucinations) and 'psychomotor poverty' (poverty of speech, lack of spontaneous movement and various aspects of blunting of emotion).
- ^ McGlashan TH, Fenton WS (1993) Subtype progression and pathophysiologic deterioration in early schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19 (1), 71-84.
- ^ Liddle PF. (1987) The symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. A re-examination of the positive-negative dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 145-51.
|WHO ICD-10 mental and behavioural disorders (F · 290–319)|
|Neurological/symptomatic||Dementia (Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct dementia, Pick's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, AIDS dementia complex, Frontotemporal dementia) · Delirium · Post-concussion syndrome|
|Psychoactive substance||alcohol (drunkenness, alcohol dependence, delirium tremens, Korsakoff's syndrome, alcohol abuse) · opiods (opioid dependency) · sedative/hypnotic (benzodiazepine withdrawal) · cocaine (cocaine dependence) · general (Intoxication, Drug abuse, Physical dependence, Withdrawal)|
|Psychotic disorder||Schizophrenia (disorganized schizophrenia) · Schizotypal personality disorder · Delusional disorder · Folie à deux · Schizoaffective disorder|
|Mood (affective)||Mania · Bipolar disorder · Clinical depression · Cyclothymia · Dysthymia|
|Anxiety disorder (Agoraphobia, Panic disorder, Panic attack, Generalized anxiety disorder, Social anxiety) · OCD · Acute stress reaction · PTSD · Adjustment disorder · Conversion disorder (Ganser syndrome) · Somatoform disorder (Somatization disorder, Body dysmorphic disorder, Hypochondriasis, Nosophobia, Da Costa's syndrome, Psychalgia) · Neurasthenia|
|Eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa) · Sleep disorder (dyssomnia, insomnia, hypersomnia, parasomnia, night terror, nightmare) · Sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, vaginismus, dyspareunia, hypersexuality) · Postpartum depression|
|Personality disorder · Passive-aggressive behavior · Kleptomania · Trichotillomania · Voyeurism · Factitious disorder · Munchausen syndrome · Ego-dystonic sexual orientation|
|Mental retardation||Mental retardation|
|Specific: speech and language (expressive language disorder, aphasia, expressive aphasia, receptive aphasia, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, lisp) · Scholastic skills (dyslexia, dysgraphia, Gerstmann syndrome) · Motor function (developmental dyspraxia)|
Pervasive: Autism · Rett syndrome · Asperger syndrome
|Behavioural and emotional,|
childhood and adolescence onset
|ADHD · Conduct disorder · Oppositional defiant disorder · Separation anxiety disorder · Selective mutism · Reactive attachment disorder · Tic disorder · Tourette syndrome · Speech (stuttering · cluttering)|