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Collecting duct system
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter. It participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and excretion, processes regulated by the hormones aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone.
Anatomically, there are several components of the collecting duct system, including the connecting tubules, cortical collecting ducts, and medullary collecting ducts.
The collecting duct system is the last component of the kidney to influence the body's electrolyte and fluid balance. In humans, the system accounts for 4-5% of the kidney's reabsorption of sodium and 5% of the kidney's reabsorption of water. At times of extreme dehydration, over 24% of the filtered water may be reabsorbed in the collecting duct system.
The wide variation in water reabsorption levels for the collecting duct system reflects its dependence on hormonal activation. The collecting ducts, particularly the outer medullary and cortical collecting ducts, are largely impermeable to water without the presence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin).
The segments of the system are as follows:
With respect to the renal corpuscle, the "connecting tubule" is the most proximal part of the collecting duct system. It is adjacent to the distal convoluted tubule, the most distal segment of the renal tubule. Connecting tubules from several adjacent nephrons merge to form cortical collecting tubules, and these may join to form cortical collecting ducts. Connecting tubules of some juxtamedullary nephrons may arch upward, forming an arcade.
The connecting tubule derives from the metanephric blastema, but the rest of the system derives from the ureteric bud. Because of this, some sources group the connecting tubule as part of the nephron, rather than grouping it with the collecting duct system.
Initial collecting tubule
The initial collecting tubule is a segment with a constitution similar as the collecting duct, but before the convergence with other tubules.
Cortical collecting duct
The "cortical collecting ducts" receive filtrate from multiple initial collecting tubules and descend into the renal medulla to form medullary collecting ducts.
Medullary collecting duct
"Medullary collecting ducts" are divided into outer and inner segments, the latter reaching more deeply into the medulla. The variable reabsorption of water and, depending on fluid balances and hormonal influences, the reabsorption or secretion of sodium, potassium, hydrogen and bicarbonate ion continues here.
The outer segment of the medullary collecting duct follows the cortical collecting duct. It reaches the level of the renal medulla where the thick ascending limb of loop of Henle borders with the [[thin ascending limb of loop of Henle
The inner segment is the part of the collecting duct system between the outer segment and the papillary ducts.
The terminal portions of the medullary collecting ducts are the "papillary ducts", which end at the renal papilla and empty into a minor calyx.
Each component of the collecting duct system contains two cell types, intercalated cells and a segment-specific cell type:
The principal cell mediates the collecting duct's influence on sodium and potassium balance via sodium channels and potassium channels located on the cell's apical membrane. Aldosterone determines if the sodium channels transport ions.
Intercalated cells come in α and β varieties and participate in acid-base homeostasis.
For their contribution to acid-base homeostasis, the intercalated cells play important roles in the kidney's response to acidosis and alkalosis. Damage to the α-intercalated cell's ability to secrete acid can result in distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA type I, classical RTA).
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Collecting_duct_system". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|