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Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium-binding protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells. It can bind to and regulate a number of different protein targets, thereby affecting many different cellular functions. CaM mediates processes such as inflammation, metabolism, apoptosis, muscle contraction, intracellular movement, short-term and long-term memory, nerve growth and the immune response. CaM is expressed in many cell types and can have different subcellular locations, including the cytoplasm, within organelles, or associated with the plasma or organelle membranes. Many of the proteins that CaM binds are unable to bind calcium themselves, and as such use CaM as a calcium sensor and signal transducer. CaM can also make use of the calcium stores in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. CaM undergoes a conformational change upon binding to calcium, which enables it to bind to specific proteins for a specific response. CaM can bind up to four calcium ions, and can undergo post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and proteolytic cleavage, each of which can potentially modulate its actions.
Calmodulin is a small, acidic protein approximately 148 amino acids long (16706 Dalton) and, as such, is a favorite for testing protein simulation software. It contains four EF-hand "motifs" or domains, each of which binds a Ca2+ ion.
Other calcium-binding proteins
Calmodulin belongs to one of the two main groups of calcium-binding proteins, called EF hand proteins. The other group, called annexins, bind calcium and phospholipid (e.g., lipocortin). Many other proteins bind calcium, although binding calcium may not be considered their principal function in the cell.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Calmodulin". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|