| Calcium hydroxide
| IUPAC name
|| Calcium hydroxide
| Other names
|| Calcium(II) hydroxide,|
Milk of Lime.
| CAS number
| Molecular formula
| Molar mass
|| 74.093 g/mol
|| Soft white powder/Colourless liquid
|| 2.211 g/cm³, solid
| Melting point
| Boiling point
| Solubility in water
|| 0.185g/100 cm³|
Ksp = 7.9 x 10−6
| Basicity (pKb)
| EU classification
|| Corrosive (C)
|| R34, R36, R37, R38, R41.
|| S22, S26, S39, S45.
| Flash point
| Related Compounds
| Other anions
|| None listed.
| Other cations
|| None listed.
| Related bases
|| Calcium oxide.
| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Calcium hydroxide, also known as slaked lime, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colourless crystal or white powder, and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or "slaked" with water. It can also be precipitated by mixing an aqueous solution of calcium chloride and an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. A traditional name for calcium hydroxide is slaked lime, or hydrated lime. The name of the natural mineral is portlandite.
If heated to 512°C, calcium hydroxide decomposes into calcium oxide and water. A suspension of fine calcium hydroxide particles in water is called milk of lime. The solution is called lime water and is a medium strength base that reacts violently with acids and attacks many metals in presence of water. It turns milky if carbon dioxide is passed through, due to precipitation of calcium carbonate.
Because of its strong basic properties, calcium hydroxide has varied uses, such as
- A flocculant, in water and sewage treatment and improvement of acid soils
- An ingredient in whitewash, mortar, and plaster
- An alkali used as a lye substitute in no-lye hair relaxers
- A chemical depilatory agent found in Nair
- An ingredient in baby formula milk
- A chemical reagent
- In the reef aquarium hobby for adding bio-available calcium in solution for calcium-using animals such as algae, snails, hard tube worms, and Corals (often referred to as Kalkwasser mix)
- In the tanning industry for neutralization of extra acid
- In the petroleum refining industry for the manufacture of additives to oils (salicatic, sulphatic, fenatic)
- In the chemical industry for manufacture of calcium stearate
- In the food industry for processing water (for alcoholic and soft drinks)
- For clearing a brine of carbonates of calcium and magnesium in the manufacture of salt for food and pharmacopoeia
- In Native American and Latin American cooking, calcium hydroxide is called "cal". Corn cooked with cal becomes nixtamal which significantly increases its nutrition value, and is also considered tastier and easier to digest.
- In chewing Betel nut or coca leaves, calcium hydroxide is usually chewed alongside to keep the alkaloid stimulants chemically available for absorption by the body
- A filler
- In the petrochemical industry for manufacturing solid oil of various marks
- In the manufacture of brake pads
- In the manufacture of ebonite
- For preparation of dry mixes for painting and decorating
- In manufacturing mixes for pesticides
- In manufacturing a drug called "Polikar" for fighting decay (due to fungus) of fruits and vegetables during storage
- A dressing in paste form used for anti-microbial effect during a dental root canal procedure.
An overdose of Calcium hydroxide can have dangerous symptoms, including
- Difficulty in breathing
- Internal bleeding
- Skeletal muscle paralysis, interference with actin-myosin system.
- An increase in blood pH, which is damaging to the internal organs.
- ^ Temperature at which H2O vapor pressure reaches 101 kPa, Halstead, Moore, J.Chem.Soc (1957) 3873