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Bottled gas is a term used for substances which are gaseous at Standard temperature and pressure (STP) and have been compressed and stored in carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum or composite bottles known as gas cylinders.
Gas state in cylinder
There are four cases: either the substance remains a gas at standard temperature but increased pressure, the substance liquefies at standard temperature but increased pressure, the substance is dissolved in a solvent, or the substance is liquefied at reduced temperature and increased pressure. In the last case the bottle is constructed with an inner and outer shell separated by a vacuum (dewar flask) so that the low temperature can be maintained by evaporative cooling.
The substance remains a gas at standard temperature and increased pressure. Examples include:
The substance liquifies at standard temperature but increased pressure. Examples include:
The substance is dissolved at standard temperature in a solvent. Examples include:
The substance is liquified at reduced temperature and increased pressure. These are also referred to as cryogenic gases. Examples include:
Expansion and Volume
The general rule is that one unit volume of liquid will expand to approximately 800 unit volumes of gas at Standard temperature and pressure with some variation due to intermolecular force and molecule size compared to an ideal gas. Normal high pressure gas cylinders or bottles will hold from 200 to 400 atmosphere (unit)s. The atmosphere units pressure held by the bottle is equivalent to the number of volumes of standard temperature and pressure of the gas held by the bottle for an ideal gas.
Special Handling Considerations
Because the contents are under high pressure and are sometimes hazardous, there are special safety regulations for handling bottled gases. These include chaining bottles to prevent falling and breaking, proper ventilation to prevent injury or death in case of leaks and signage to indicate the potential hazards.
In the United States, the Compressed Gas Association sells a number of booklets and pamphlets on safe handling and use of bottled gases. (Members of the CGA can get the pamphlets for free.) The European Industrial Gases Association and the British Compressed Gas Association provide similar facilities in Europe and the United Kingdom.
In the United States, 'bottled gas' typically refers to liquified petroleum gas. 'Bottled gas' is sometimes used in medical supply, especially for portable oxygen tanks. Packaged industrial gases are frequently called 'cylinder gas', though 'bottled gas' is sometimes used.
The United Kingdom and other parts of Europe more commonly refer to 'bottled gas' when discussing any usage whether industrial, medical or liquified petroleum. However, in contrast, what the United States calls liquified petroleum gas is known generically in the United Kingdom as 'LPG'; and it may be ordered using by one of several Trade names, or specifically as butane or propane depending on the required heat output.
Different countries have different gas colour codes but attempts are being made to standardise the colours of cylinder shoulders.
European cylinder colours
The colours below are specific shades, defined in the European Standard in terms of RAL coordinates:
Specific named gases
Based on gas properties
Gas mixtures, mostly for diving
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bottled_gas". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|