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The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor which is activated by binding of either of the androgenic hormones testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. The main function of the androgen receptor is as a DNA binding transcription factor which regulates gene expression. However the androgen receptor also has additional functions independent of DNA binding
Two isoforms of the androgen receptor (A and B) have been identified:
Like other nuclear receptors, the androgen receptor is modular in structure and is comprised of the following functional domains labeled A through F:
The AR gene for the androgen receptor is located on the X chromosome at Xq11-12.
In some cell types testosterone interacts directly with androgen receptors while in others testosterone is converted by 5-alpha-reductase to dihydrotestosterone, an even more potent agonist for androgen receptor activation. Testosterone appears to be the primary androgen receptor activating hormone in the Wolffian duct while dihydrotestosterone is the main androgenic hormone in the urogenital sinus, urogenital tubercle, and hair follicles.
The primary mechanism of action for androgen receptors is direct regulation of gene transcription. The binding of an androgen to the androgen receptor results in a conformational change in the receptor which in turn causes dissociation of heat shock proteins, dimerization, and transport from the cytosol to the cell nucleus where the androgen receptor dimer binds to a specific sequence of DNA known as a hormone response element. Androgen receptors interact with other proteins in the nucleus resulting in up or down regulation of specific gene transcription. Up-regulation or activation of transcription results in increased synthesis of messenger RNA which in turn is transcribed by ribosomes to produce specific proteins. One of the known target genes of androgen receptor activation is insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1). Thus, changes in levels of specific proteins in cells is one way that androgen receptors control cell behavior.
Androgens cause slow epiphysis, or maturation of the bones, but more of the potent epiphysis effect comes from the estrogen produced by aromatization of androgens. Steroid users of teen age may find that their growth had been stunted by androgen and/or estrogen excess. People with too little sex hormones can be short during puberty but end up taller as adults as in androgen insensitivity syndrome or estrogen insensitivity syndrome.
More recently, androgen receptors have been shown to have a second mode of action. As has been also found for other steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen receptors, androgen receptors can have actions that are independent of their interactions with DNA. Androgen receptors interact with certain signal transduction proteins in the cytoplasm. Androgen binding to cytoplasmic androgen receptors can cause rapid changes in cell function independent of changes in gene transcription, such as changes in ion transport. Regulation of signal transduction pathways by cytoplasmic androgen receptors can indirectly lead to changes in gene transcription, for example, by leading to phosphorylation of other transcription factors.
One function of androgen receptor that is independent of direct binding to its target DNA sequence, is facilitated by recruitment via other DNA binding proteins. One example is Serum Response Factor, a protein which activates several genes that cause muscle growth.
The androgen insensitivity syndrome, formerly known as testicular feminization, is caused by a mutation of the Androgen Receptor gene located on the X chromosome (locus:Xq11-Xq12). The androgen receptor seems to affect neuron physiology and is defective in Kennedy disease.
|(1.1) Basic leucine zipper (bZIP)||Activating transcription factor (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) • AP-1 (c-Fos, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, c-Jun, JUNB, JUND) • BACH (1, 2) • C/EBP (α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ) • CREB (1, 3) • GABPA • MAF (B, F, G, K) • NRL • NRF1 • XBP1|
|(1.2) Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)||ATOH1 • AhR • AHRR • ARNT • ASCL1 • BMAL (ARNTL, ARNTL2) • CLOCK • HIF (1A, 3A) • Myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD, Myogenin, MYF5, MYF6) • NEUROD1 • Twist • USF1|
|(1.3) bHLH-ZIP||Myc • MITF • SREBP (1, 2)|
|(1.6) Basic helix-span-helix (bHSH)||AP-2|
|(2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4)||subfamily 1 (Thyroid hormone (α, β), CAR, FXR, LXR (α, β), PPAR (α, β/δ, γ), PXR, RAR (α, β, γ), ROR (α, β, γ), Rev-ErbA (α, β), VDR) • subfamily 2 (COUP-TF (I, II), Ear-2, HNF4 (α, γ), PNR, RXR (α, β, γ), Testicular receptor (2, 4), TLX) • subfamily 3 (Steroid hormone (Estrogen (α, β), Estrogen related (α, β, γ), Androgen, Glucocorticoid, Mineralocorticoid, Progesterone)) • subfamily 4 NUR (NGFIB, NOR1, NURR1) • subfamily 5 (LRH-1, SF1) • subfamily 6 (GCNF) • subfamily 0 (DAX1, SHP)|
|(2.2) Other Cys4||GATA (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)|
|(2.3) Cys2His2||General transcription factors (TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH: 1, 2) • GLI-Krüppel family (1, 2, 3, YY1) • KLF (2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13) • Sp1 • zinc finger (3, 35, 43, 146, 148, 165, 217, 268, 281, 350) • Zbtb7 (7A) • ZBT (16, 17, 33)|
|(3.1) Homeo domain||ARX • Homeobox (A1, A3, A4, A5, A7, A9, A10, A11, A13, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B13, C4, C6, C8, C9, C13, D1, D3, D4, D9, D10, D11, D12, D13) • NANOG • NKX (2-1, 2-5, 3-1) • POU domain (PIT-1, BRN-3: 1, 2, Octamer transcription factor: 1, 2, 3/4, 6, 7)|
|(3.2) Paired box||PAX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)|
|(3.3) Fork head / winged helix||E2F (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) • FOX proteins (C1, C2, E1, G1, H1, L2, M1, N3, O3, O4, P1, P2, P3)|
|(3.4) Heat Shock Factors||HSF1|
|(3.5) Tryptophan clusters||ELF (4, 5) • Interferon regulatory factors (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) • MYB|
|(3.6) TEA domain||transcriptional enhancer factor 1, 2|
minor groove contacts
|(4.1) Rel homology region||NF-κB (NFKB1, NFKB2, REL, RELA, RELB) • NFAT (5, C1, C2, C3, C4)|
|(4.2) STAT||STAT (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)|
|(4.4) MADS box||Mef2 (A, B, C, D) • SRF|
|(4.7) High mobility group||HNF (1A, 1B) • LEF1 • SOX (3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 13, 18) • SRY • SSRP1|
|(4.10) Cold-shock domain||CSDA|
|(4.11) Runt||CBF (RUNX1, RUNX2, RUNX3)|
|(0.2) HMGI(Y)||HMGA (1, 2)|
|(0.3) Pocket domain||Rb • RBL1 • RBL2|
|(0.6) Miscellaneous||ARID (1A, 1B, 2, 3A, 3B, 4A) • CAP • Rho/Sigma • R-SMAD|
Sex hormones and related agents (primarily G03, also L02, H01C) - human endogenous in CAPS
|PROGESTERONE, Desogestrel, Drospirenone, Dydrogesterone, Ethisterone, Etonogestrel, Ethynodiol diacetate, Gestodene, Gestonorone, Levonorgestrel, Lynestrenol, Medroxyprogesterone, Megestrol, Norelgestromin,
Norethisterone, Norethynodrel, Norgestimate, Norgestrel, Norgestrienone, Tibolone |
Selective progesterone receptor modulator: Asoprisnil, CDB-4124
|TESTOSTERONE, Androstanolone, Fluoxymesterone, Mesterolone, Methyltestosterone, (see also anabolic steroids)|
Antiandrogens: Bicalutamide, Cyproterone, Flutamide, Nilutamide, Spironolactone
|ESTRADIOL, ESTRIOL, ESTRONE, Chlorotrianisene, Dienestrol, Diethylstilbestrol, Ethinylestradiol, Fosfestrol, Mestranol, Polyestradiol phosphate|
Selective estrogen receptor modulator: Bazedoxifene, Clomifene, Fulvestrant, Lasofoxifene, Raloxifene, Tamoxifen, Toremifene
Aromatase inhibitor: Aminogluthetimide, Anastrozole, Exemestane, Formestane, Letrozole, Vorozole
|ovulation stim.: Clomifene, Urofollitropin|
Antigonadotropins: Danazol, Gestrinone
|agonist: Buserelin, Goserelin, Histrelin, Leuprorelin, Nafarelin, Triptorelin|
antagonist: Abarelix, Cetrorelix, Ganirelix